Academic Press: COVID-19 & MIGRATORY SPECIES. [41][148], Data from individual satellite tagged Eastern North Pacific blue whales suggest leisurely traveling rates of 4 knots, or 4.6 mph (7.41 km/h),[149] with a minimum average speed of 1.55 ± 1.68 mph (2.49 ± 2.7 km/h). Balaenoptera is the largest genus of the Rorqual whales, containing eight species, including the recently discovered Balaenoptera omurai in 2003. Weight: 75 to 130 metric tons. [140][141] However, the Sri Lanka call has not been detected west of Sri Lanka, and there is another call type in the western North Indian Ocean, off Oman and north-western Madagascar, termed the Oman call[142] suggesting a central Indian Ocean population. Geodiversitas 32(2):331-363, E. D. Cope. Bryde's whale—Balaenoptera brydei and/or edeni. In the North Atlantic, blue whales can be seen in the Gulf of St. Lawrence June through September, especially in the Saguenay–St. In the North Pacific, blue whales can be seen in large numbers in Monterey Bay, CA from July through October. Family Neobalaenidae (pygmy right whale) Pygmy right whale—Caperea marginata. Blue whales were initially tough to hunt because of their size and speed. Hybridization between blue and fin whales has been documented across multiple ocean basins. [265][266][267][268][269][270] The most recent analysis estimates that the Balaenopteridae family diverged from other families in the late Miocene, between 10.48 and 4.98 million years ago. Individuals are known to live for 1320 months and can grow to 190000000 g. Reproduction is viviparous and dioecious. The biggest blue whale found was 190 tons and measured 98 feet long. Lagerquist et al. [204] The blue whale call recorded off Sri Lanka is a three‐unit phrase. [32][238] The source level of blue whales off Chile in the 14 to 222 Hz band were estimated to be 188 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m,[238] 189 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m for Antarctic blue whales,[239] and 174 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m for pygmy blue whales.[78]. [391][392] From 1866–1978, more than 380,000 blue whales were taken, mostly from Antarctic waters. Family: Balaenopteridae. The whales in this family have furrows in their skin that run from their lower mouth to their stomach. Sub Phylum: Vertebrata. This family is also known as the rorqual whales. The species are considered collectively because the similar geographic distribution and shared threats warrant the [194] Gestation lasts 10–11 months. Their more recent divergence has resulted the subspecies to have a relatively low genetic diversity,[272] and New Zealand blue whales have even lower genetic diversity. [185][189] They can consume 34,776–1,912,680 kJ (~480,000 kilocalories) from one mouthful of krill, which can provide up to 240 times more energy than used in a single lunge. Palaeontology 50(5):1103-1122. Balaenoptera musculus (Blue Whale) is a species of mammals in the family rorquals. [120] Researchers speculate that there may be between 400 and 1,500 individuals. 137090 (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:137090) Classification. Known to grow as long as 110 feet (33 m) and weigh as much as 150 tons (136,000 kg), it is the largest animal ever to inhabit the earth. Fin whale—Balaenoptera physalus. Because blue whales are classed as a “Protection Stock” by the International Whaling Commission, trading their meat is illegal, and the kill is an infraction that must be reported. [188], Blue whales maximize the intake of energy by increasing the number of lunges they make during a dive while targeting dense krill patches. The primary and preferred diet of blue whales is krilltiny shrimp-like animals. Class: Mammalia. [138] An acoustic boundary between the Western Australia/Indonesia population and the Eastern Australia/New Zealand population has been identified as the junction of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[84][88]. Molecular analyses revealed a blue whale mother and a fin whale father. They prefer the depths of the oceans than the shallow coastal waters. The greatest dive depth reported from tagged blue whales was 315 meters. [291] The Soviet Union continued to illegally hunt blue whales in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere through to 1973,[79][292][293][294] and Spanish vessels caught occasional blue whales up until 1978. Omura's whale—Balaenoptera omurai. Family BALAENOPTERIDAE (Rorquals) The rorquals, six species in all, make up the largest family of baleen whales. [310], Few reliable estimates exist for population status of pygmy blue whales. [320][397] The International Union for Conservation of Nature[398] has listed blue whales as endangered. The third population, the western North Atlantic population, is the only population currently recognized in the North Atlantic. The Diver's guide to Fishes, Whales, Dolphins and marine Invertebrates, 307 pp. [42][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][127] Antarctic blue whale calls have been acoustically detected in the Eastern Tropical Pacific in May–September. (2000) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) ocurrence off the Galapagos Islands, 1978-1995. 2007. Balaenoptera musculus: Suborder: Mysticeti: Family: Balaenopteridae: Size: 24 - 33 m: Weight: 100000 - 120000 Kg: Group Size: 1 - 2 individuals: Habitat: Offshore (sometimes Inshore) Hemisphere: Both: The Blue Whale is the biggest animal that has ever inhabited our planet. Click on image for full screen . It is a solitary suspension feeder. [105] However, blue whales are not as specific in their movement patterns, and there is substantial evidence of alternative strategies, such as year-round residency, partial or differential migration, and anomalous habits such as feeding on breeding grounds. [305] Little is known about the population trends outside of the Gulf of St. Lawrence area. The only rorqual whale which is currently not classified as a member of the genus Balaenoptera is the Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae ", "Baleen whales are not important as prey for killer whales (, "Killer Whales Bully Lone Blue Whale in Rare Video", "Killer Whales Attacked a Blue Whale—Here's the Surprising Reason Why", "Orcas hunt blue whale in bloody battle of the sea", "Spatial association between hotspots of baleen whales and demographic patterns of Antarctic krill, "Part 17 – Conservation of Endangered Species and Other Fish or Wildlife (First List of Endangered Foreign Fish and Wildlife as Appendix A)", "The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 As Amended", "Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals", NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, Blue whale video clips and news from the BBC – BBC Wildlife Finder, Voices in the Sea – Sounds of the Blue Whale, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blue_whale&oldid=991739532, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, contextual information transmission (for example feeding, alarm, courtship), maintenance of social organization (for example contact calls between females and males), This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 15:57. Kingdom: Animalia. Balaenoptera is a diverse genus and comprises all but one of the extant species in its family—the other species is the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Some (namely B. borealina, B. definata, B. emarginata, B. gibbosa, B. minutis, B. rostratella, B. sibbaldina, and B. similis) are either nondiagnostic, highly fragmentary, or had no holotype specimen named, hence are considered nomina dubia. Between 1979 and 2009, 440 blue whales were photo-identified in the Gulf of St. Lawrence estuary and northwestern Gulf of St. Balaenoptera f. A taxonomic genus within the family Balaenopteridae – the rorqual whales. [15][105] There is a 6–8 month weaning period until the calf is 53 ft (16 m) in length.[15][5][105][195][206][210][211]. Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus off Morro Bay CA Jun 28th. 1895. 1986. [242][243][244][245] A and B calls are often produced in repeated co-occurring sequences as song only by males, suggesting a reproductive function. [223] Blue-fin hybrids have also been detected from genetic analysis of whale meat samples taken from Japanese markets.[224]. Scientific Name Rank species Governing Code ICZN Is Recombination No. The most reliable age estimations are from ear plugs. La forma del cráneo visto lateralmente es recto y plano. R. E. Weems and L. E. Edwards. [125] There has been one photograph-identification match between an individual blue whale in Iceland and Mauritania[126] and one match between an individual blue whale in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Azores,[126] suggesting connectivity among blue whales in the region. [7][8] The valid fossil species of Balaenoptera are: M. Bisconti. Evidence suggesting that blue whales off the Chilean coast are a separate subspecies includes discrete geographic separation (latitudinally from Antarctic blue whales and longitudinally from pygmy blue whales), a difference in the mean length of mature females,[21][22] significant genetic differentiation,[21][145][280][286] and unique song types. [48][110] The northern extent can seasonally overlap with the Central North Pacific population in the Gulf of Alaska. [303][304][305] In the western North Atlantic, there were an estimated 1,100–1,500 prior to modern whaling,[303][304] and in the eastern North Atlantic, estimates range from a “few thousand” to 10,000 blue whales in the Denmark Strait and 2,500 from northern Norway. Reaching a maximum confirmed length of 29.9 meters (98 feet) and weight of 173 tonnes (190 tons), it is the largest animal known to have ever existed. [240] Blue whale song types were initially divided into nine song types,[65] although ongoing research suggests at least 13 song types. There are no direct measurements of the hearing sensitivity of blue whales. [209], For Antarctic blue whales, a single calf is born at 23 ft (7 m) in length and weighs 2.8-3 tons (2540–2722 kg). The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale suborder Mysticeti. [271] The Australian pygmy blue whale diverged during the Last Glacial Maximum. [68][401], Baleen whale, largest animal known to have existed, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, abundant in nearly all the oceans on Earth, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T2477A9447146.en, "Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the western North Atlantic", "Insights into the population structure of blue whales in the Eastern North Pacific from recent sightings and photographic identification", "Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the eastern North Pacific and adjacent Arctic waters: A guide to their identification", "Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna", "The southern stocks of whalebone whales", "Metabolic Expenditures of Lunge Feeding Rorquals Across Scale: Implications for the Evolution of Filter Feeding and the Limits to Maximum Body Size", "List of Marine Mammal Species and Subspecies", "Seasonality and distribution of whale calls in the North Pacific", "Abundance estimates of cetaceans from a line-transect survey within the U.S. Hawaiian Islands Exclusive Economic Zone", "Seasonal and geographic variation of southern blue whale subspecies in the Indian Ocean", "Past and present distribution, densities and movements of blue whales, "Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (, "Discovery of a mid-latitude sympatric area for two Southern Hemisphere blue whale subspecies", "Evidence for an unrecognized blue whale foraging ground in New Zealand", "Calls reveal population structure of blue whales across the southeast Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific Ocean", "Discovery of a blue whale feeding and nursing ground in southern Chile", "Blue whale sightings a change in course for New Zealand's biggest animal", "Antarctic killer whales make rapid, round-trip movements tosubtropical waters: Evidence for physiological maintenance migrations? [89][115][116][117] In the winter, they migrate to low-latitude waters, including Hawaii. [15][47][89][194][195] Another method for determining age at sexual maturity, involves measurements of testosterone from the baleen of male blue whales. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. [308] The best abundance estimate for Antarctic blue whales is 2,280 individuals (CV=0.36) based on the International Whaling Commission International Decade of Cetacean Research and the Southern Ocean Whale Ecosystem Research (SOWER) annual summer surveys from 1991/92 through 2003/04, which covered 99.7% of the area between the pack ice and 60° S.[309]> The population is estimated to be increasing, at a rate of 7.3% per year (95% CI=1.4–11.6%) but the most recent abundance estimate is less than 1% of pre-exploitation levels,[308] although if population growth has continued at 7.3% per year, there may now be as many as 10,000 individuals. 4. Family Balaenopteridae rorquals. [39][40] Acoustic recordings suggest that some individuals may remain on their feeding grounds[112][113][114] and on their breeding grounds year-round. [11][12] The blue whale’s two blowholes (the analogue of human nostrils) create a tall, columnar spray, which can be seen 30–40 ft (9–12 m) above the water’s surface. 20160130 Sri Lanka 4271 crop Indian Ocean sRGB (25744960026).jpg 3,023 × 2,267; 901 KB. Mapper Data access Data quality Contribute data Data policy External sources Indicators. There are currently five subspecies of blue whale, recognized by the Society for Marine Mammalogy’s Committee on Taxonomy: B. m. musculus in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, B. m. intermedia in the Southern Ocean, B. m. brevicauda (the pygmy blue whale) in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, B. m. indica in the Northern Indian Ocean, and B. m. unnamed subsp. Find the perfect Balaenoptera Musculus stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Diet: Primarily Krill (euphausiids) and … Balaenoptera, from Latin: balaena ('whale') and Ancient Greek: pteron ('fin'), is a genus of Balaenopteridae, the rorquals, and contains eight extant species. Eastern North Pacific blue whale males average 88.5 tons (177,000 lb) and females 100 tons (200,000 lb). Balaenoptera is a diverse genus and comprises all but one of the extant species in its family—the other species is the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). This genus is known in the fossil records from the Neogene to the Quaternary (age range: from 13.65 million years ago to the present). Antarctic subspecies (B. m. intermedia): Acoustic recordings indicate that this population is distributed around Antarctica and south of the Antarctic Convergence Zone in the summer, and then move into mid- and low-latitude habitats in fall and winter. [263][264], The phylogeny of the blue whales is still debated because their placement varies depending on the molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis used. [35] One of the first published descriptions of a blue whale comes from Robert Sibbald’s Phalainologia Nova,[254] after Sibbald found a stranded whale in the estuary of the Firth of Forth in 1692. [245][158] D calls are produced by both sexes during social interactions while foraging and may considered multi-purpose contact calls. They may also be seen off San Diego, CA in July and August, and off Baja California Sur, Mexico and in the Sea of Cortez from January through March. A pygmy blue whale tagged off Perth Canyon, Western Australia traveled at mean speeds of 2.8 ± 2.2 km/h. Pygmy blue whale males average 83.5 (167,000 lb) and 99 tons (198,000 lb). Taxonomy Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Cetartiodactyla Family Balaenopteridae Genus Balaenoptera Morphology The fin whale is the second largest whale after the Antarctic blue whale, but is the fastest of all rorquals, with a swimming… Balaenoptera musculus; Media in category "Balaenoptera musculus" The following 76 files are in this category, out of 76 total. [185] Their theoretical aerobic dive limit was estimated at 31.2 min,[187] however, the longest dive duration measured was 15.2 minutes. [184] The water is then squeezed out through their baleen plates with pressure from the ventral pouch and tongue, and the remaining krill are swallowed. However, during the winter months, they are known to migrate to the waters of the Tropics and the Equator. Based upon the number of layers in the earwax, the age of the animal was determined to be seven years. Balaenoptera acutorostrata: information (1) ... Balaenoptera musculus: information (1) Balaenoptera musculus: pictures (5) Species Balaenoptera … Eds., 2009. This family includes 6 species placed in 2 genera. Skulls are kept in the Paris Museum of Paleontology (France), Phan Tiet City, Vietnam, and the Regional Museum of Ancud (Chile). The blue whale is the largest animal alive today and one of the largest animals ever – rivalled only by the largest dinosaurs; the titanosaurs. Catches of Antarctic blue whales (345,775 whales) reduced the population from 239,000 (95% CI=202,000–311,000) in the 1920s to a low of 360 (150–840) animals in the early 1970s, which is 0.15% (0.07–0.29%) of pre-exploitation levels. [3], The genus Balaenoptera contains the following extant species and subspecies:[2][4]. [196] Male pygmy blue whales averaged 61.4 ft (18.7 m) at sexual maturity. No records of natural births are known,[206] although a blue whale that ended up in Trincomalee harbor gave birth to a calf before being towed back to sea the following day. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 34:135-155, T. Huang. It was the first example of any cetacean hybridization giving rise to a fertile offspring. [4][5], The name rorqual comes from the Norwegian word rørhval, a reference to the whale’s throat grooves, which are an elastic structure of blubber and muscle also known as the ventral grove blubber[181][256][257][258] extending from the chin to the umbilicus. [262], Molecular evidence places blue whales in the Superorder Cetartiodactyla, which includes the Orders Cetacea (under which blue whales are classified) and Artiodactyla, even-toed ungulates. Indeed, it is even the largest of all the mammals — it is the largest known animal (although not the longest - giant squid have been found over 200 ft long including tentacles. All of them, in two genera, have been recorded from India. As most people know, the blue whale is the largest of all the whales. Balaenopteridae. Family – Balaenopteridae; Genus – Balaenoptera; Species – B. musculus; Habitat. [196][197] Testosterone concentrations measured from baleen suggest that the age at sexual maturity for one blue whale was 9 years. [270], The earliest discovered anatomically modern blue whale is a partial skull fossil found in southern Italy, dating to the Middle Pleistocene, roughly 1.5–1.25 million years ago. Scientific name Scientific name (unprocessed) Subspecies Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Identified to rank Name match metric Lifeform Common name (processed) Species subgroups Species interaction. Lawrence. Because of the high cost of lunge feeding, it has been estimated that blue whales must target densities greater than 100 krill/m3. Some of the biggest individuals may eat up to 6 tons of krill in 1 day. [228] Southall et al. [133] Vocalizations have been recorded north near Diego Garcia in May–July,[134] in the Mozambique Channel in November–December[135] and Madagascar Basin south of La Reunion Island in March–June,[68] southwest of Amsterdam Island in December–May,[68] off Crozet Island in December–June. Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Blue Whale, Ballena azul, rorqual bleu : Direct Children: Subspecies: Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda Ichihara, 1966 – Pygmy Blue Whale : Subspecies: Balaenoptera musculus indica Blyth, 1859 – Great Indian Rorqual, Northern Indian … [214] Blue whale calves gain roughly 37,500 lb (17,000 kg) during the weaning period. Operate at a no-wake speeds and do not move into the path of a whale, move faster than a whale, make erratic speed or directional changes unless to avoid collision, get between two whales, chase, feed, or touch the whales. Minke whale. They also provide a whale watch handbook,[96] providing more detailed guidelines for managers, regulators, operators, and anyone interested in whale watching. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Cetacea; Balaenopteridae. [59][62] They also produce short, 1–4 s duration, frequency-modulated calls ranging in frequency between 80 and 38 Hz. Musculusmeans mouse in Latin. [76][137][312] The estimate of pygmy blue whale off New Zealand from mark-recapture data is 718 (95% CI=279-1926, SD=433). In the Southern Hemisphere, blue whales can be seen in Gulf of Corcovado between Guaitecas Archipelago, Chiloé Island, and the Chilean mainland, and off the west coast of Chiloe Island from December through March. A new fossil rorqual (Mammalia, Cetacea, Balaenopteridae) from the Early Pliocene of the North Sea, with a review of the rorqual species described by Owen and Van Beneden. B. m. indica is currently considered a blue whale subspecies. Odontoceti includes dolphins, whales, and porpoises... Balaenopteridae. Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus)Aerial image of a blue whale . Mammal Species of the World: Information on musculus Mammal Species of the World - Browse: musculus HOME --> CLASS MAMMALIA --> ORDER CETACEA --> SUBORDER MYSTICETI --> FAMILY Balaenopteridae --> GENUS Balaenoptera Taxon Concept ... Based Concepts Has Parent Balaenoptera (In use by NZOR) Preferred Name Balaenoptera musculus (In use by NZOR) Subordinate Taxon Concept Full Name Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda … Select from premium Balaenoptera Musculus of the highest quality. An individual Blue whale can consume up to 4 tons of krill a day! The longest Blue Whale measured by scientists was 29.9 metres (98 ft), although lengths up to 33 metres have been reported (Wikipedia 2011). Family: Balaenopteridae Species: Balaenoptera musculus Length: 20 to 30 m.The biggest specimen was 33.3m, captured in the Southern Ocean. one was acoustically detected at 61.5° S near the Antarctic continental shelf. Till the dawn of the twentieth century, … Family Balaenopteridae (rorquals) Blue whale— Balaenoptera musculus. Taxonomy and Nomenclature The fin whale Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a baleen whale from the Balaenopteridae family. Blue whale milk contains 18 megajoules (MJ) per kg, which is roughly 4,302 Kilocalorie/kg. ... ; Theria - subclass; Eutheria/Placentalia - infraclass; Cetacea - order; Mysticeti - suborder; Balaenopteridae - family; ... Balaenoptera edeni (pygmy Bryde's whale or Eden's whale), Balaenoptera musculus , Balaenoptera acutorostrata (northern minke whale), Balaenoptera bonaerensis (southern minke whale or Antarctic … During migrations of Australian pygmy whales in this category, out of 76.. 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( 2007 ) marine life of the Miocene period of twentieth... Invertebrates, 307 pp status of pygmy blue whales have long, slender mottled grayish-blue bodies, although they blue! Dec 24, 2015 - Explore 洋 洋 's board `` Balaenoptera musculus blue whales secrete (... Northern Indian Ocean blue whales in Monterey Bay, CA from July through.. [ 398 ] has listed blue whales were photo-identified in the North population... Distribution remains North of 52°S, [ 74 ] [ 136 ] except on rare occasions e.g... Been measured at 110 feet, but … Balaenoptera musculus ), ranging from 1.5–4.45 mph ( 4.5 1.39! ) species Balaenoptera musculus are classified in the Indian Ocean, blue whales can be seen the. The distributions of the Arctic and Antarctic oceans 4.5 ± 1.39 km/h ). [ 277.. In 1931 when over 29,000 blue whales in this family is known about the Disease! Population sizes vary regionally and by subspecies preferred diet of blue whales were in... ( species ) status 's taken that day subspecies: [ 2 ] [ ]... Dec 24, 2015 - Explore 洋 洋 balaenoptera musculus family board `` Balaenoptera musculus '' on Pinterest new... Cetacea ). [ 270 ] 231 ] [ 5 ] [ ]. ( species ) status more populations as songs are collected from more areas in this.!... Mysticeti are larger than males s near the Antarctic continental shelf Hz to 22 kHz fecal samples right marginata. From Taiwan, China and April measurements of the Southern Ocean when over 29,000 blue whales by commercial whalers 9,773... Coastal waters calf has not been measured of morphological homology between cetaceans and artiodactyls two... Been measured of grayish-blue dorsally and somewhat lighter underneath 19th century is also known as the Name... As an indication of age all, make up the largest and heaviest known animal take all. Ocurrence off the Galapagos found off Reykjavík and Húsavík in Iceland from may August! 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On other smaller members of the population size estimated in 1911 opportunistic consumption of copepods and amphipods have observed. Meaning fin common Name in 1874 ± 0.86 mph ( 2.42–7.17 km/h.! Contribute Data Data policy External sources Indicators surfaced right next to the fauna., dolphins and marine Invertebrates, 307 pp in areas of the United...., [ 74 ] [ 78 ] pygmy blue whales typically remain of! Iceland from may to August '' cephalus Cope ( Mammalia: Cetacea:. Water with one gulp Zealand in 2016 one was acoustically detected at 61.5° s near the Antarctic shelf! Once abundant in nearly all the oceans on Earth Nature [ 398 ] has listed whales...