[75] Republicans responded to the attacks by assassinating senior UVF members John Bingham, William "Frenchie" Marchant and Trevor King[76] as well as Leslie Dallas, whose purported UVF membership was disputed both by his family and the UVF. “A threat has come through this council and from the police to say the East Belfast UVF have threatened contractors – possibly with the use of firearms,” he said. The Irish parliament's Joint Committee on Justice called the bombings an act of "international terrorism" involving the British security forces. Its first leader was Gusty Spence, a former British Army soldier from Northern Ireland. "FIFTH REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT MONITORING COMMISSION", "BBC - The Devenport Diaries: Remembering Billy Wright", "Sutton Index of Deaths: Crosstabulations (two-way tables)", "Sutton Index of Deaths: Status of the person killed", CAIN – University of Ulster Conflict Archive, Bombings of King's Cross and Euston stations, Carlton Tower and Portman Hotel shootings, Belfast, Crumlin, Killyleagh & Coleraine attacks, Ceasefires of the Provisional IRA, UVF, UDA and RHC, Murders of Andrew Robb and David McIlwaine, Ulster Loyalist Central Co-ordinating Committee, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ulster_Volunteer_Force&oldid=993325030, Proscribed paramilitary organisations in Northern Ireland, Organizations designated as terrorist in Europe, Organisations designated as terrorist by the United Kingdom, Organised crime groups in Northern Ireland, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, May 1966 – present (on ceasefire since October 1994; officially ended armed campaign in May 2007), Unnamed Chief of Staff (1974 – October 1975). [134] In 2002 the House of Commons Northern Ireland Affairs Committee estimated the UVF's annual running costs at £1–2 million per year, against an annual fundraising capability of £1.5 million. East Belfast UVF leaders have distanced themselves from two brothers named in court as being part of a crime gang linked to the sale of drugs. Wright is believed to have dealt mainly in Ecstasy tablets in the early 90s. Unable to find their target, the men drove around the Falls district in search of a Catholic. It comprises high-ranking officers under a Chief of Staff or Brigadier-General. [32] In April 1966, Ulster loyalists led by Ian Paisley, a Protestant fundamentalist preacher, founded the Ulster Constitution Defence Committee (UCDC). (2006) "Neglected Intelligence: How the British Government Failed to Quell the Ulster Volunteer Force, 1912–1914. They also stated that they would retain their weaponry but put them beyond reach of normal volunteers. [85], On 3 May 2007, following recent negotiations between the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) and Irish Taoiseach Bertie Ahern and with Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) Chief Constable Sir Hugh Orde, the UVF made a statement that they would transform to a "non-military, civilianised" organisation. More militant members of the UVF who disagreed with the ceasefire, broke away to form the Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF), led by Billy Wright. [94], The UVF was blamed for the shotgun killing of expelled RHC member Bobby Moffett on the Shankill Road on the afternoon of 28 May 2010, in front of passers-by including children. [68] In 1976, Tommy West was replaced with "Mr. F" who is alleged to be John "Bunter" Graham, who remains the incumbent Chief of Staff to date. The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association sought to end discrimination against Catholics by the unionist government of Northern Ireland. The following March they … The Geography of Service and Death (GoSD) has details of around 400 UVF members from West and East Belfast. [142], The UVF have been implicated in drug dealing in areas from where they draw their support. [146] It was around this time that Sunday World journalists Martin O'Hagan and Jim Campbell coined the term "rat pack" for the UVF's murderous mid-Ulster unit and, unable to identify Wright by name for legal reasons, they christened him "King Rat." The UVF agreed to a ceasefire in October 1994. Such retaliation was seen as both collective punishment and an attempt to weaken the IRA's support; it was thought that terrorising the Catholic community and inflicting such a death toll on it would force the IRA to end its campaign. The newspaper also reported that the group refused to decommission its weapons. [67] The UVF's activities in the last years of the decade were increasingly being curtailed by the number of UVF members who were sent to prison. [40], On 12 October, a loyalist protest in the Shankill became violent. On 17 February 1979, the UVF carried out its only major attack in Scotland, when its members bombed two pubs in Glasgow frequented by Irish-Scots Catholics. In October 1975, after staging a counter-coup, the Brigade Staff acquired a new leadership of moderates with Tommy West serving as the Chief of Staff. The resource says that while the narrative of the UVF men joining the 36th (Ulster) division and fighting at the Somme on July 1, 1916 has been ‘widely told’, there are other stories involving other routes into the military that are less well-known. CAIN also states that republicans killed 15 UVF members, some of whom are suspected to have been set up for assassination by their colleagues.[79]. F". [32] Two days later, the Government of Northern Ireland declared the UVF illegal. During the riot, UVF members shot dead RUC officer Victor Arbuckle. [20] At other times, attacks on Catholic civilians were claimed as "retaliation" for IRA actions, since the IRA drew almost all of its support from the Catholic community. He was shot dead by the IRA in November 1982, four months after his release from the Maze Prison. There was to be much overlap in membership between the UCDC/UPV and the UVF.[33]. History Beginning. The 45-year-old was beaten and stabbed to death outside his home in … Drugs, cash, cars and jewellery seized in operation against activities of East Belfast UVF Press Association Fri 22 Mar 2019 12.15 EDT First published on Fri 22 Mar 2019 05.30 EDT Detectives from the Paramilitary Crime Task Force (PCTF) carried out a … Though, for its own purposes, it assumed the same name it has nothing else in common. The initial aim of Ulster Resistance was to bring an end to the Anglo-Irish Agreement. [112] The Brigade Staff's former headquarters were situated in rooms above "The Eagle" chip shop located on the Shankill Road at its junction with Spier's Place. [69], The UVF's nickname is "Blacknecks", derived from their uniform of black polo neck jumper, black trousers, black leather jacket, black forage cap, along with the UVF badge and belt. It comprises high-ranking officers under a Chief of Staff or Brigadier-General. In Belfast, loyalists responded by attacking nationalist districts. This was a general strike in protest against the Sunningdale Agreement, which meant sharing political power with Irish nationalists and the Republic having more involvement in Northern Ireland. [114][115] This uniform, based on those of the original UVF, was introduced in the early 1970s. The vast majority (more than two-thirds)[8][9] of its victims were Irish Catholic civilians, who were often killed at random. The UVF killed four men in Belfast and trouble ended only when the LVF announced that it was disbanding in October of that year. “We’d be especially pleased to see copies of UVF membership cards which were issued, but we are also interested in receiving information on military service in 1914-18. [55], The brigade formed part of the Glenanne gang, a loose alliance of loyalist assassins which the Pat Finucane Centre has linked to 87 killings in the 1970s. [139] Supporters in Scotland have helped supply explosives and guns. This was in retaliation for attacks on Loyalist homes the previous weekend and after a young girl was hit in the face with a brick by Republicans. Their weapons stock-piles are to be retained under the watch of the UVF leadership. Veteran anti-UVF campaigner Raymond McCord, whose son, Raymond Jr., a Protestant, was beaten to death by UVF men in 1997, estimates the UVF has killed more than thirty people since its 1994 ceasefire, most of them Protestants. "[108], In June 2017, Gary Haggarty, former UVF commander for north Belfast and south-east Antrim, pleaded guilty to 200 charges, including five murders. [64] These men had overthrown the "hawkish" officers, who had called for a "big push", which meant an increase in violent attacks, earlier in the same month. James Gray (1958 – 4 October 2005), known as Jim Gray, was a Northern Irish loyalist and the Referring to its activity in the early and mid-1970s, journalist Ed Moloney described no-warning pub bombings as the UVF's "forte". The first British soldier to be killed by the Provisional IRA died in February 1971. It was responsible for more than 500 deaths. Article from The People (London, England). However, the UVF spurned the government efforts and continued killing. [129] Like the IRA, the UVF also operated black taxi services,[130][131][132] a scheme believed to have generated £100,000 annually for the organisation. In June 2017, Gary Haggarty, former UVF commander for north Belfast and south-east Antrim, pleaded guilty to 200 charges, including five murders. From late 1975 to mid-1977, a unit of the UVF dubbed the Shankill Butchers (a group of UVF men based on Belfast's Shankill Road) carried out a series of sectarian murders of Catholic civilians. page 1. [23], Like the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), the UVF's modus operandi involved assassinations, mass shootings, bombings and kidnappings. [58] Beginning in 1975, recruitment to the UVF, which until then had been solely by invitation, was now left to the discretion of local units.[59]. The damage from security service informers started in 1983 with "supergrass" Joseph Bennett's information, which led to the arrest of fourteen senior figures. [105] The high levels of orchestration by the leadership of the East Belfast UVF, and the alleged ignored orders from the main leaders of the UVF to stop the violence has led to fears that the East Belfast UVF has now become a separate loyalist paramilitary grouping which doesn't abide by the UVF ceasefire or the Northern Ireland Peace Process. [69][70] West died in 1980. 30 June 2002. Friday, 17th July 2020, 3:51 pm A UVF mural on the Lower Newtownards Road in east Belfast. The 45-year-old was beaten and stabbed to death outside his home in … "[34] It was led by Gusty Spence, a former British soldier. [40] Unionist support for O'Neill waned, and on 28 April he resigned as Prime Minister. Scores of houses and businesses were burnt out, most of them owned by Catholics. We are heavily armed Protestants dedicated to this cause. “They can help to replace the service records which were destroyed for about two-thirds on men in the London Blitz in 1940.”. In October, UVF and UPV member Thomas McDowell was killed by the bomb he was planting at Ballyshannon power station. [37] He died of his wounds on 11 June. Although the UDA and UVF have frequently co-operated and generally co-existed, the two groups have clashed. [57] Some of the new Brigade Staff members bore nicknames such as "Big Dog" and "Smudger". A unit referred to as the ‘West Belfast Battalion’, by the Royal Irish Constabulary, was drilling virtually every night of the week by March 1914, they did so at Stewart’s Yard – 174 Shankill Road, and Forthriver Football Grounds. [71], In the 1980s, the UVF was greatly reduced by a series of police informers. The Irish Army set up field hospitals near the border. [27] However, from 1977 bombs largely disappeared from the UVF's arsenal owing to a lack of explosives and bomb-makers, plus a conscious decision to abandon their use in favour of more contained methods. 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