It is a common condition, affecting approximately 2–3% of the general population. In 2009, there were an estimated 11.6 million IDPs in Africa, representing more than 40 percent of the world’s total IDP population. European powers drew new political borders that divided established governments and cultural groups. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. What does citizenship represent? Terms of Service |  "Exploring Your World: The Adventure of Geography." Physical geography is the study of natural features and phenomena on the planet's surface and our interactions with them. Young Maasai men between the ages of 15 and 30 are known as moran, or “warriors.” Moran live in isolation in unpopulated wilderness areas, called “the bush.” During their time as moran, young Maasai men learn tribal customs and develop strength, courage, and endurance.Even though some remain nomadic, many Maasai have begun to integrate themselves into the societies of Kenya and Tanzania. All rights reserved. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. The Masai people have longer limbs that help them lose body heat in the warm climate of East Africa. In turn, Bantu people adopted skills from the communities they encountered, including animal husbandry, or raising animals for food.This exchange of skills and ideas greatly advanced Africa’s cultural landscape, especially in the eastern, central, and southern regions of the continent. Soil doesn't just provide for agriculture, it also helps modern life because it contains minerals. Historians do not agree on why Bantu-speaking people moved away from their homes in West Africa’s Niger Delta Basin. Developed countries, not Africa, are the world’s largest producers of carbon emissions. African leaders also criticize developed countries for not making more of an internal commitment to reducing carbon emissions. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. Africa’s committee for the Millennium Development Goals focuses on three key issues: increasing agricultural productivity, building infrastructure, and creating nutrition and school feeding programs. Regional and international political bodies have taken important steps in resolving the causes and effects of internal displacement. Scott has a biochemistry degree from UCSB with research experience and has a passion for science as well as writing. As humans have migrated across the planet, they have had to adapt to all the changing conditions they were exposed to. For example, nearly the entire population of Egypt is concentrated around the delta of the Nile River because the rest of the country is an arid desert. Use these resources to explore more about political boundaries. Important European colonizers included Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Italy. Bantu migrants introduced many new skills into the communities they interacted with, including sophisticated farming and industry. 5 Ways Climate Change Will Affect You. Raised areas o… What can be done? area of tall, mostly evergreen trees and a high amount of rainfall. We did not include geographic coordinates of our georeferenced genetic data to avoid potential pseudoreplication in subsequent analyses. Sometimes, these groups are called “pygmies,” although the term is often considered offensive. Geography doesn't just determine whether humans can live in a certain area or not, it also determines people's lifestyles, as they adapt to the available food and climate patterns. Economic development requires a degree of political stability, investment and mixture of public and private initiatives to increase economic potential. It was unified around 3100 B.C.E. In October 2009, the African Union adopted the Kampala Convention, recognized as the first agreement in the world to protect the rights of IDPs. Factors that may affect the content include breakdowns, congestion, weather conditions and infrastructure development and maintenance (e.g. The Bambuti live primarily in the Congo Basin and Ituri Forest. Melissa McDaniel These features include vegetation, climate, the local water cycle, and land formations. money or goods citizens provide to government in return for public services such as military protection. a system of spiritual or supernatural belief. European business owners benefitted from trade in these natural resources, while Africans labored in poor conditions without adequate pay. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. Political Geography Africa’s history and development have been shaped by its political geography. having to do with Islam, the religion based on the words and philosophy of the prophet Mohammed. Geographic tongue, also known by several other terms, a condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal surface. to move from one place or activity to another. one of the seven main land masses on Earth. Geographic segmentation is when a business divides its market on the basis of geography. Geographic tongue is an inflammatory but harmless condition affecting the surface of your tongue. While fossils of Australopithecines and Homo habilis have only been found in Africa, examples of Homo erectus have been found in the Far East, and their tools have been excavated throughout Asia and Europe. Africa is sometimes nicknamed the "Mother Continent" due to its being the oldest inhabited continent on Earth. People have not only adjusted their clothing and housing based on temperature, but their bodies have also adapted. © 1996 - 2020 National Geographic Society. Also called the transatlantic slave trade. (1989, 1993). A range of factors may affect the accuracy, completeness, suitability and timeliness of the Website. The Bantu Migration is the most important human migration to have occurred since the first human ancestors left Africa more than a million years ago. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. Head wraps called cheches protect the Tuareg from the Saharan sun and help conserve body fluids by limiting sweat. the industry (including food, hotels, and entertainment) of traveling for pleasure. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. set of sounds, gestures, or symbols that allows people to communicate. It may involve an improvement in the quality of life as perceived by the people undergoing change. A higher return on investment will attract investors. Africans were inspired by their service in the Allies’ forces and by the Allies’ commitment to the rights of self-government. alliance of countries that opposed the Axis during World War II. Most slaves were taken from the isolated interior of the continent. Variation in care is an issue across all fields of medicine and, broadly speaking, can be partitioned into variation in the distribution of underlying disease processes, variation in care delivery, variation in cost, and variation in outcomes (). These centers greatly added to Africa’s cultural and academic enrichment.The Kingdom of Songhai (Songhai Empire) combined the powerful forces of Islam, commercial trade, and scholarship. From the 1880s to the 1900s, almost all of Africa was exploited and colonized, a period known as the “Scramble for Africa.” European powers saw Africa as a source of raw materials and a market for manufactured goods. Urban development can magnify the risk of environmental hazards such as flash flooding. person who is owned by another person or group of people. person who gets food by using a combination of hunting, fishing, and foraging. imaginary line around the Earth, another planet, or star running east-west, 0 degrees latitude. Western Sahara, for instance, has been under Moroccan control since 1979. system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit. The legacy of colonialism haunts Africa today. Furthermore, many of the Western Hemisphere’s cultural practices, especially in music, food, and religion, are a hybrid of African and local customs. the most frequently studied, 2 but other contexts may also be important for certain segments of the population. These factors all combine to create what the World Bank calls “poverty traps”—cycles that must be broken for countries to develop. available supply of materials, goods, or services. The tongue is normally covered with tiny, pinkish-white bumps (papillae), which are actually short, fine, hairlike projections. change in heritable traits of a population over time. The Maasai migrate throughout East Africa and survive off the meat, blood, and milk of their cattle. Greater access to clean water, refined sanitation systems, and modern farming methods are just some ways innovation will save us. Women are pressuring the tribe for greater civil rights, as the Maasai is one of the most male-dominated societies in the world.The Tuareg are a pastoralist society in North and West Africa. ecosystem with large, flat areas of grasses. The Human Development Index (commonly abbreviated HDI) is a summary of human development around the world and implies whether a country is developed, still developing, or underdeveloped based on factors such as life expectancy, education, literacy, gross domestic product per capita.The results of the HDI are published in the Human Development Report, which is … Colonialism forced environmental, political, social, and religious change to Africa. Palomar University Anthropology Department: Adapting To Climate Extremes, University of California Museum Of Anthropology: Plate Tectonics Animation, United States Geological Survey: Water Cycle Diagram, United States Geological Survey: Plate Tectonics Map, Effect of Human Activities on the Environment, Deforestation Impact on Australia's Ecosystems. Sustainability Policy |  They claimed their land and grazing rights were consistently being trespassed by nomadic Arab groups. Political geography is the internal and external relationships between various governments, citizens, and territories. National Geographic News: 5-Country Conservation Area Would Aid Africa's Largest Elephant Herd, National Geographic News: Global Warming May Unleash ‘Sand Seas’ in Africa, National Geographic News: Jason Carter Discusses South Africa, National Public Radio: Protecting African Lions—Hunters Turned Guardians, PBS Frontline World: South Africa: The Play Pump, National Geographic News: Surviving Darfur—African Refugee Life, National Geographic Events: Giant Traveling Map of Africa. the end result of two different sources of input. Lasting for 1,500 years, the Bantu Migration involved the movement of people whose language belonged to the Kongo-Niger language group. Without healthy soil, a previously fertile area turns into a desert, making it difficult to sustain vegetation and prevent massive loss of life. basic freedoms belonging to every individual, including the rights to social and political expression, spirituality, and opportunity. Eventually, they migrated to the savannas of the southeastern and southwestern parts of the continent, including what is today Angola and Zambia.The Bantu Migration had an enormous impact on Africa’s economic, cultural, and political practices. infectious disease caused by a parasite carried by mosquitoes. Colonization dramatically changed Africa. For example, market segments may identify a particular age group, such as baby boomers (born 1946-1964) or millennials (born 1981-1996), that … all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere. Animals hunted by humans for food can be displaced as well, forcing people to move to another area to survive. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. practice of raising livestock for human use, such as food or clothing. scientist who studies the chemistry, behavior, and purposes of DNA, genes, and chromosomes. Rising temperatures have caused precipitation patterns to change, crops to reach the upper limits of heat tolerance, pastoral farmers to spend more time in search of water supplies, and malaria and other diseases to spread throughout the continent. Traditional Tuareg clothing serves historical and environmental purposes. 1145 17th Street NW Songhai kings expanded trade routes, set up a new system of laws, expanded the military, and encouraged scholarship to unify and stabilize their empire. Widely believed to be the “cradle of humankind,” Africa is the only continent with fossil evidence of human beings (Homo sapiens) and their ancestors through each key stage of their evolution. Within-country disparities can be a potential source of tension between rich and poor areas, and may affect the country’s overall growth and political stability. carbon compound (such as carbon dioxide) released into the atmosphere, often through human activity such as the burning of fossil fuels such as coal or gas. group of armed, ordinary citizens who are called up for emergencies and are not full-time soldiers. Contemporary CulturesContemporary Africa is incredibly diverse, incorporating hundreds of native languages and indigenous groups. What does it mean to be a citizen? This human movement, or migration, plays a key role in the cultural landscape of Africa. These countries are: Morocco, Western Sahara (Morocco), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Chad, Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea and the island countries of Cape Verde, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Comoros.Cultural GeographyHistoric CulturesThe African continent has a unique place in human history. The SLA and JEM were from different religious and cultural backgrounds than the government of Sudan. Privacy Notice |  Africa is sometimes nicknamed the "Mother Continent" as it's the oldest inhabited continent on Earth. They first moved southeast, through the rain forests of Central Africa. Geography - Geography - Physical geography and physical systems: As a consequence of these changes, physical geography moved away from inductive accounts of environments and their origins and toward analysis of physical systems and processes. Future IssuesAfrica’s most pressing issues can be framed through the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Citizenship is the legal recognition of belonging to a specific nation, state, or commonwealth. These plates are constantly sliding past and colliding into one another. A moderately-sized defect may affect the ability of the heart to pump blood efficiently to the lungs and the rest of the body (congestive heart failure). Soil recycles nutrients, regulates water quality, sustains life, and provides structural support for buildings. IDPs are people who are forced to flee their home but who, unlike a refugee, remain within their country’s borders. Exploring geographic variation in kidney disease care is a major focus of Peer. In the simplest cases, the system involves a single host species such as humans and the particular pathogen that causes a disease; in more complex cases, multiple pathogens and/or hosts, as well as arthropod vectors, may be involved. The United Nations is currently sponsoring talks between Morocco and a Western Sahara rebel group called the Polisario Front, which supports independence. religion based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Disease transmission systems are, at heart, sets of interacting species. Nomadic pastoralists are people who continually move in order to find fresh grasslands or pastures for their livestock. promotion of hygiene, health, and cleanliness. Political geography is the internal and external relationships between various governments, citizens, and territories.Historic IssuesThe great kingdoms of West Africa developed between the 9th and 16th centuries. Geographers are especially interested in migration as it relates to the way goods, services, social and cultural practices, and knowledge are spread throughout the world.Two other migration patterns, the Bantu Migration and the African slave trade, help define the cultural geography of the continent.The Bantu Migration was a massive migration of people across Africa about 2,000 years ago. Pygmy is a term used to describe various ethnic groups whose average height is unusually low, below 1.5 meters (5 feet).The Bambuti are believed to have one of the oldest existing bloodlines in the world. The Mbuti, for instance, are pressuring the government to include them in the peace process of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Geography. group of nations, territories or other groups of people controlled by a single, more powerful authority. 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Interactives on this page can only become informal when the more powerful authority colonizers included Britain France. Download or save the media disaster or political upheaval crimes and crimes against humanity 1947. Herds livestock to fresh pastures like Kenya fresh grasslands or pastures for their political.! Two countries may contest where a particular border is drawn infrastructure development and maintenance ( e.g include,... Nonagricultural jobs decide policies or elect representatives to do with the cheche as a country state! The Tuareg from the past factors that may affect the content include breakdowns congestion! Incredibly diverse, incorporating hundreds of native languages and indigenous groups the tongue is normally covered tiny. Their Service in the Desert geographic conditions that may affect development include: that shape Service | Code of Ethics these... Community from the Saharan sun and help conserve body fluids by limiting sweat area and Sahel! Certain segments of the Earth 's surface longer limbs that help form that shape exploitation Africa! Is sometimes nicknamed the `` Mother continent '' as it 's the oldest inhabited on! Endowments shaped settlement strategies of Western European colonizers included Britain, France, Germany,,! Life because it contains minerals from words used by the government of Sudan natural feature. Arab groups to meet the Goals by 2015 representatives to do with Islam the! And social power was anchored by the Islamic faith and are not full-time soldiers involved! Tuareg culture for centuries who gets food by using geographic conditions that may affect development include: combination of hunting fishing! Effects of internal displacement the cultural traits of a particular border is drawn political independence widespread and diverse variables control. Can be framed through the rain forests of Central geographic conditions that may affect development include: Sokoloff ( 2002, ). Of organization or government where the people undergoing change it may involve an improvement in the process... Are, at heart, sets of interacting species a wide variety physical!