The absolute uncertainty expresses the margin of uncertainty associated with a reading, a measurement, or a calculation involving several readings. For example, to determine the mass of a penny we measure its mass twice—once to tare the balance at 0.000 g and once to measure the penny’s mass. First, complete the calculation using the manufacturer’s tolerance of 10.00 mL±0.02 mL, and then using the calibration data from Table 4.2.8. The energy as a function of . Quoting your uncertainty in the units of the original measurement – for example, 1.2 ± 0.1 g or 3.4 ± 0.2 cm – gives the “absolute” uncertainty. The overall uncertainty in the final concentration—and, therefore, the best option for the dilution—depends on the uncertainty of the volumetric pipets and volumetric flasks. An electron in an atom has a mass of 9… If the uncertainty in each measurement of mass is ±0.001 g, then we estimate the total uncertainty in the penny’s mass as, \[u_R = \sqrt{(0.001)^2 + (0.001)^2} = 0.0014 \text{ g} \nonumber\]. Management issues addressed include the responsibility of the quality of the whole measurement process, which needs to include the sampling procedure. Additionally, the idea and structure of the TrainMiC® examples, which complement the TrainMiC® theoretical presentations, are … Uncertainty in Measurement The absolute uncertainty in the mass of Cu wire is, \[u_\text{g Cu} = \sqrt{(0.0001)^2 + (0.0001)^2} = 0.00014 \text{ g} \nonumber\], The relative uncertainty in the concentration of Cu2+ is, \[\frac {u_\text{mg/L}} {7.820 \text{ mg/L}} = \sqrt{\left( \frac {0.00014} {0.9775} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {0.20} {500.0} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {0.006} {1.000} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {0.12} {250.0} \right)^2} = 0.00603 \nonumber\]. in the subject of chemical analytics in the fields of health-related consumer protection, agricultural sector, chemistry and environment 71 SD 4 016_e | Revision 1.0| 19 January 2017 Scope of application: This guidance document contains general rules, guidelines and examples for procedures for estimation of measurement uncertainties. So what is the total uncertainty? Correctly represent uncertainty in quantities using significant figures; Apply proper rounding rules to computed quantities ; Counting is the only type of measurement that is free from uncertainty, provided the number of objects being counted does not change while the counting process is underway. Is Calculating Uncertainty Actually Useful? The numbers of measured quantities, unlike defined or directly counted quantities, are not exact. To measure the volume of liquid in a graduated cylinder, you should make a reading at the bottom of the meniscus, the lowest point on the curved surface of the liquid. When quantities with uncertainties are combined, the results have uncertainties as well. The spool’s initial weight is 74.2991 g and its final weight is 73.3216 g. You place the sample of wire in a 500-mL volumetric flask, dissolve it in 10 mL of HNO3, and dilute to volume. Solving for umg/L gives the uncertainty as 0.0472. If we subtract the maximum uncertainties for each delivery, (9.992 mL + 9.992 mL) ± (0.006 mL – 0.006 mL) = 19.984 ± 0.000 mL. The result of such a counting measurement is an example of an exact number. When expressing the uncertainty of a value given in scientific notation, the exponential part should include both the value itself and the uncertainty. The techniques for which there are examples or exercises include acid base titration, Kjeldahl nitrogen determination, UVVis spectrophotometry, atomic absorption 19 MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY 19.1 Overview This chapter discusses the evaluation and reporting of measurement uncertainty. When we add or subtract measurements we propagate their absolute uncertainties. we clearly underestimate the total uncertainty. Solving for the uncertainty in kA gives its value as \(1.47 \times 10^{-3}\) or ±0.0015 ppm–1. On the other hand, because exact numbers are not measured, they have no uncertainty and an infinite numbers of significant figures. To prepare a standard solution of Cu2+ you obtain a piece of copper from a spool of wire. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. When a measurement reported as 5.0 kg is divided by 3.0 L, for example, the display may show 1.666666667 as the answer. To estimate the uncertainty we use a mathematical technique known as the propagation of uncertainty. Volumetric Glassware, Thermometers, or. For example: The relative uncertainty or relative error formula is used to calculate the uncertainty of a measurement compared to the size of the measurement. The relative uncertainty (δ) in the measurement for the reaction time is: Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. Legal. Qual. For help with concepts you are welcome to visit the Online Course of Measurement Uncertainty Estimation in Analytical Chemistry. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Convert this sum to a percentage. Knowing this, we can identify and correct the problem. \[[\ce{H+}] = 10^{-\text{pH}} = 10^{-3.72} = 1.91 \times 10^{-4} \text{ M} \nonumber\], or \(1.9 \times 10^{-4}\) M to two significant figures. Terry Sturtevant Uncertainty Calculations - Multiplication Wilfrid Laurier University In both graphs the title is given (although it should be more explicit), and the student has labelled the axes and included units. Electromagnetic radiations and microscopic matter waves exhibit a dual nature of mass/ momentum and wave character. Finally, a measurement uncertainty training course for accredited chemistry laboratories. 2015, 20, 229. For example, if the result is given by the equation, \[\frac {u_R} {R} \sqrt{\left( \frac {u_A} {A} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {u_B} {B} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {u_C} {C} \right)^2} \label{4.2}\], The quantity of charge, Q, in coulombs that passes through an electrical circuit is. Next, you pipet a 1 mL portion to a 250-mL volumetric flask and dilute to volume. The numerator, therefore, is 23.41 ± 0.028. Relative uncertainty is often represented using the lowercase Greek letter delta (δ). Many other mathematical operations are common in analytical chemistry, including the use of powers, roots, and logarithms. The mass of copper is, \[74.2991 \text{ g} - 73.3216 \text{ g} = 0.9775 \text{ g Cu} \nonumber\], The 10 mL of HNO3 used to dissolve the copper does not factor into our calculation. To achieve an overall uncertainty of 0.8% we must improve the uncertainty in kA to ±0.0015 ppm–1. For example, if you use an analytical balance and a pipette to help you prepare a sample with a specific concentration, you will need to estimate uncertainty for your balance and pipette before estimating … Missed the LibreFest? For general guidance on the quality of analytical results see Accred. M= 30.1 ± .4 g . Examples of Relative Uncertainty Calculations Example 1 Three 1.0 gram weights are measured at 1.05 grams, 1.00 grams, and 0.95 grams. For instance, we can dilute a stock solution by a factor of 10 using a 10-mL pipet and a 100-mL volumetric flask, or using a 25-mL pipet and a 250-mL volumetric flask. Section 10 presents examples of setting the target uncertainty using the different types of information and algorithms presented in previous sections. If . If we measure a single penny’s mass several times and obtain a standard deviation of ±0.050 g, then we have evidence that the measurement process is out of control. If you add or subtract data then the uncertainties must also be added. This course is a complete introduction and application of estimating uncertainty in chemistry. We also can use a propagation of uncertainty to help us decide how to improve an analytical method’s uncertainty. Adding the uncertainty for the first delivery to that of the second delivery assumes that with each use the indeterminate error is in the same direction and is as large as possible. If we dispense 20 mL using a 10-mL Class A pipet, what is the total volume dispensed and what is the uncertainty in this volume? (a) A one-step dilution that uses a 1-mL pipet and a 1000-mL volumetric flask. The relative error (δ) of your measurement is 0.05 g/1.00 g = 0.05, or 5%. Calculating the Uncertainty of a Numerical Result When you add or subtract data, the uncertainty in the result is the sum of the individual uncertainties. Following is a discussion of multiplication. Traceability, Validation and Measurement Uncertainty in Chemistry: Vol. In chemistry, students are not expected to construct uncertainty bars. The dilution calculations for case (a) and case (b) are, \[\text{case (a): 1.0 M } \times \frac {1.000 \text { mL}} {1000.0 \text { mL}} = 0.0010 \text{ M} \nonumber\], \[\text{case (b): 1.0 M } \times \frac {20.00 \text { mL}} {1000.0 \text { mL}} \times \frac {25.00 \text{ mL}} {500.0 \text{mL}} = 0.0010 \text{ M} \nonumber\], Using tolerance values from Table 4.2.1, the relative uncertainty for case (a) is, \[u_R = \sqrt{\left( \frac {0.006} {1.000} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {0.3} {1000.0} \right)^2} = 0.006 \nonumber\], and for case (b) the relative uncertainty is, \[u_R = \sqrt{\left( \frac {0.03} {20.00} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {0.3} {1000} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {0.03} {25.00} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {0.2} {500.0} \right)^2} = 0.002 \nonumber\]. Examples of Measurement Uncertainty Budgets for Chemical Analysis (Analytical Chemistry): pH, dissolved oxygen, sensors, LC-MS, spectrophotometry, etc using the ISO GUM modeling and Nordtest approach Examples of Measurement Uncertainty Budgets in Analytical Chemistry For the equations in this section we represent the result with the symbol R, and we represent the measurements with the symbols A, B, and C. The corresponding uncertainties are uR, uA, uB, and uC. 2015). For example, the weight of a particular sample is 0.825 g, but it may actually be 0.828 g or 0.821 g because there is inherent uncertainty involved. ... Chemistry lab. See Appendix 2 for more details. the expenditure needs to be aimed at the sampling, rather than the chemical analysis, if the total uncertainty needs to be reduced in order to achieve fitness for purpose. Section 3 (Terminology) discusses the relevant aspects of terminology used in this guide. A chemist measured the time required for a chemical reaction and found the value to be 155 +/- 0.21 hours. Given the effort it takes to calculate uncertainty, it is worth asking whether such calculations are useful. Suppose you have a range for one measurement, such as a pipet’s tolerance, and standard deviations for the other measurements. When using the manufacturer’s values, the total volume is, \[V = 10.00 \text{ mL} + 10.00 \text{ mL} = 20.00 \text{ mL} \nonumber\], and when using the calibration data, the total volume is, \[V = 9.992 \text{ mL} + 9.992 \text{ mL} = 19.984 \text{ mL} \nonumber\], Using the pipet’s tolerance as an estimate of its uncertainty gives the uncertainty in the total volume as, \[u_R = (0.02)^2 + (0.02)^2 = 0.028 \text{ mL} = 0.028 \text{ mL} \nonumber\], and using the standard deviation for the data in Table 4.2.8 gives an uncertainty of, \[u_R = (0.006)^2 + (0.006)^2 = 0.0085 \text{ mL} \nonumber\]. When a current of 0.15 A ± 0.01 A passes through the circuit for 120 s ± 1 s, what is the total charge and its uncertainty? In other words the single reading from a burette cannot be expressed as a percentage uncertainty, while the absolute uncertainty of the volue measured bform a burette does have a percentage uncertainty. From Table \(\PageIndex{1}\) the relative uncertainty in [H+] is, \[\frac {u_R} {R} = 2.303 \times u_A = 2.303 \times 0.03 = 0.069 \nonumber\], The uncertainty in the concentration, therefore, is, \[(1.91 \times 10^{-4} \text{ M}) \times (0.069) = 1.3 \times 10^{-5} \text{ M} \nonumber\]. Laboratory measurements always involve uncertainty, which must be considered when analytical results are used as part of a basis for making decisions. eBook Shop: Traceability, Validation and Measurement Uncertainty in Chemistry: Vol. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. uncertainty in volume = (volume) * (percentage uncertainty in volume) = (55.00 m^3) * (8.8%) = 4.84 m^3 Therefore, volume = 55.00 +/- 4.84 m^3 = 55.00 m +/- 8.8% For example, a new investor who doesn't know that short selling exists. Setting and Using Target Uncertainty in Chemical Measurement, (1 st ed. “the uncertainty” with your results, you should give the absolute uncertainty. An uncertainty of 0.8% is a relative uncertainty in the concentration of 0.008; thus, letting u be the uncertainty in kA, \[0.008 = \sqrt{\left( \frac {0.028} {23.41} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {u} {0.186} \right)^2} \nonumber\], Squaring both sides of the equation gives, \[6.4 \times 10^{-5} = \left( \frac {0.028} {23.41} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {u} {0.186} \right)^2 \nonumber\]. The absolute error is ± 0.05 grams. An example from our own profession is the estimation of the uncertainty of a measured volume using a two - litre measure- ment cylinder. 3.7 Calculate the expanded uncertainty 12 4 Example 1: The determination of creatinine in serum 13 4.1 Background to the measurement procedure 13 4.2 Evaluation of measurement uncertainty 13 5 Example 2: The determination of free catecholamines in urine 19 5.1 Background to the method 19 The absorbance and uncertainty is 0.40 ± 0.05 absorbance units. Three 1.0 gram weights are measured at 1.05 grams, 1.00 grams, and 0.95 grams. For example, the location and speed of a moving car can be determined at the same time, with minimum error. Every measured result reported by a laboratory should be accompanied by an explicit uncertainty estimate. Keywords : cause and effect diagram; combined uncertainty; Kragten spreadsheet; measurement; quantification; un certainty 1. We also can accomplish the same dilution in two steps using a 50-mL pipet and 100-mL volumetric flask for the first dilution, and a 10-mL pipet and a 50-mL volumetric flask for the second dilution. There is a degree of uncertainty any time you measure something. Institutional guidelines for estimating uncertainty of measurement, containing examples in fields of application other than clinical laboratory sciences, have been published . An excellent review of uncertainty (and traceability) in clinical chemistry was published recently . Unknown Unknowns Things that are beyond your information to the extent that you don't know they exist. Thus the absolute uncertainty is is unrelated to the magnitude of the observed value. From the discussion above, we reasonably expect that the total uncertainty is greater than ±0.000 mL and that it is less than ±0.012 mL. In Example \(\PageIndex{3}\), for instance, we calculated an analyte’s concentration as 126 ppm ± 2 ppm, which is a percent uncertainty of 1.6%. As per appointed surveyor, 5 readings have been taken – 50.33 acre, 50.20 acre, 50.51 acre, 50.66 acre, and 50.40 acre. 1. \[\frac {u_R} {R} = \sqrt{\left( \frac {0.028} {23.41} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {0.003} {0.186} \right)^2} = 0.0162 \nonumber\], The absolute uncertainty in the analyte’s concentration is, \[u_R = (125.9 \text{ ppm}) \times (0.0162) = 2.0 \text{ ppm} \nonumber\]. The relative uncertainty gives the uncertainty as a percentage of the original value. You will have uncertainties associated with your mass measurement and your length measurement. The importance of relative uncertainty is that it puts error in measurements into perspective. When we dilute a stock solution usually there are several combinations of volumetric glassware that will give the same final concentration. Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Charles H. Corwin. Jetzt eBook herunterladen & mit Ihrem Tablet oder eBook Reader lesen. Having found the absorbance, we continue with the propagation of uncertainty. It is best suited for chemical testing labs that perform sample analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and … As shown in the following example, we can calculate the uncertainty by separately treating each operation using Equation \ref{4.1} and Equation \ref{4.2} as needed. Assur. The percentage uncertainty in the time = 2/32 x 100 = 6.25%; We can see that the uncertainly in the pipette measurement is far less than that of either the HCl volume or the time. We report the [H+] as \(1.9 (\pm 0.1) \times 10^{-4}\) M, which is equivalent to \(1.9 \times 10^{-4} \text{ M } \pm 0.1 \times 10^{-4} \text{ M}\). For example, if the result is given by the equation, \[u_R = \sqrt{u_A^2 + u_B^2 + u_C^2} \label{4.1}\]. The requirement that we express each uncertainty in the same way is a critically important point. Of course we must balance the smaller uncertainty for case (b) against the increased opportunity for introducing a determinate error when making two dilutions instead of just one dilution, as in case (a). As a first guess, we might simply add together the volume and the maximum uncertainty for each delivery; thus, (9.992 mL + 9.992 mL) ± (0.006 mL + 0.006 mL) = 19.984 ± 0.012 mL. a. is then: Introduction What follows is a simple and practical approach to quantify measurement uncertainty, u , based on information gathered from many helpful resources. There are many causes of uncertainty in chemical measurements. The first step is to calculate the absorbance, which is, \[A = - \log T = -\log \frac {P} {P_\text{o}} = - \log \frac {1.50 \times 10^2} {3.80 \times 10^2} = 0.4037 \approx 0.404 \nonumber\]. What Is the Difference Between Accuracy and Precision? Suppose we want to decrease the percent uncertainty to no more than 0.8%. Future Events Generally speaking, the future is uncertain. Which of the following methods for preparing a 0.0010 M solution from a 1.0 M stock solution provides the smallest overall uncertainty? \[Q = (0.15 \text{ A}) \times (120 \text{ s}) = 18 \text{ C} \nonumber\], Since charge is the product of current and time, the relative uncertainty in the charge is, \[u_R = \sqrt{\left( \frac {0.01} {0.15} \right)^2 + \left( \frac {1} {120} \right)^2} = 0.0672 \nonumber\], \[u_R = R \times 0.0672 = (18 \text{ C}) \times (0.0672) = 1.2 \text{ C} \nonumber\]. where, T is the transmittance, Po is the power of radiation as emitted from the light source and P is its power after it passes through the solution. Have questions or comments? Errors and uncertainties in chemistry The consideration and appreciation of the significance of the concepts of errors and uncertainties helps to develop skills of inquiry and thinking that are not only relevant to the group 4 sciences. To calculate the total volume we add the volumes for each use of the pipet. Thus, we report the total charge as 18 C ± 1 C. Many chemical calculations involve a combination of adding and subtracting, and of multiply and dividing. The short answer is, yes. The first step is to find the absolute uncertainty: The value 0.135 has too many significant digits, so it is shortened (rounded) to 0.14, which can be written as 14% (by multiplying the value times 100). Relative Uncertainty – The relative uncertainty is the ratio of the absolute uncertainty to the reported value. A solution of copper ions is blue because it absorbs yellow and orange light. He wants to measure the available area of the property. In metrology, measurement uncertainty is the expression of the statistical dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity. An example of the proper form would be (3.19 ± 0.02) × 10 4 m. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! (b) A two-step dilution that uses a 20-mL pipet and a 1000-mL volumetric flask for the first dilution, and a 25-mL pipet and a 500-mL volumetric flask for the second dilution. What is the analyte’s concentration, CA, and its uncertainty if Stotal is 24.37 ± 0.02, Smb is 0.96 ± 0.02, and kA is \(0.186 \pm 0.003 \text{ ppm}^{-1}\)? But, in microscopic particles, it will not be possible to fix the position and measure the velocity/momentum of the particle simultaneously. Suppose we dispense 20 mL of a reagent using the Class A 10-mL pipet whose calibration information is given in Table 4.2.8. If the pH of a solution is 3.72 with an absolute uncertainty of ±0.03, what is the [H+] and its uncertainty? Assume that the uncertainty in the balance is ±0.1 mg and that you are using Class A glassware. There are ways to convert a range to an estimate of the standard deviation. presented using examples of analytical chemistry methods. All is not lost. Finally, we can use a propagation of uncertainty to determine which of several procedures provides the smallest uncertainty. gives the analyte’s concentration as 126 ppm. Examples of Relative Uncertainty Calculations, Absolute Error or Absolute Uncertainty Definition, Tips and Rules for Determining Significant Figures, How to Calculate Experimental Error in Chemistry. Uncertainty in Addition and subtraction: In these operations first of all we have to place these numbers in such a way that they have same exponents. 3: Practical Examples | Hrastelj, Nineta, Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo | ISBN: 9783030203498 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Suppose we want to measure 500 mL, and assume a reasonable interval to be ± 3 % or (485-515) mL. Position and velocity/momentum of macroscopic matter waves can be determined accurately, simultaneously. Of these two terms, the uncertainty in the method’s sensitivity dominates the overall uncertainty. Let us take the example of John who has decided to sell off his real estate property which is a barren land. At the other extreme, we might assume that the uncertainty for one delivery is positive and the other is negative. For a concentration technique, the relationship between the signal and the an analyte’s concentration is, \[S_{total} = k_A C_A + S_{mb} \nonumber\]. While absolute error carries the same units as the measurement, relative error has no units or else is expressed as a percent. 8.7 mL. Rounding the volumes to four significant figures gives 20.00 mL ± 0.03 mL when we use the tolerance values, and 19.98 ± 0.01 mL when we use the calibration data. Example 1: Mass of crucible + product: 74.10 g +/- 0.01 g Mass of empty crucible: - 72.35 g +/- 0.01 g Since the relative uncertainty for case (b) is less than that for case (a), the two-step dilution provides the smallest overall uncertainty. What is the absorbance if Po is \(3.80 \times 10^2\) and P is \(1.50 \times 10^2\)? When we multiple or divide measurements we propagate their relative uncertainties. As shown in the following example, we can use the tolerance values for volumetric glassware to determine the optimum dilution strategy [Lam, R. B.; Isenhour, T. L. Anal. The numbers of defined quantities are also exact. To complete the calculation we use Equation \ref{4.2} to estimate the relative uncertainty in CA. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. How might we accomplish this? Absorbance, A, is defined as, \[A = - \log T = - \log \left( \frac {P} {P_\text{o}} \right) \nonumber\]. A length of 100 cm ± 1 cm has a relative uncertainty of 1 cm/100 cm, or 1 part per hundred (= 1% or 1 pph). Examples on traceability, measurement uncertainty and validation for measurements of retinol and α-tocopherol in human serum, cyclamate in soft drinks, arsenic in groundwater, sodium chloride in milk products and total organic carbon in waste water are presented in this book. ... Chemistry … Therefore, when we add \(5.43 ~×~10^4\) and \(3.45~×~10^{3}\) , the powers are made equal and after that the coefficients are added and subtracted. Examples of Measurement Uncertainty Budgets in Analytical Chemistry. It is calculated as: If a measurement is taken with respect to a standard or known value, calculate relative uncertainty as follows: Absolute error is the range of measurements in which the true value of a measurement likely lies. Verify that an uncertainty of ±0.0015 ppm–1 for kA is the correct result. carrying out uncertainty estimation for most of the common chemical analyses in routine laboratory environment. The result of such a counting measurement is an example of an exact number. A propagation of uncertainty allows us to estimate the uncertainty in a result from the uncertainties in the measurements used to calculate that result. It is easy to appreciate that combining uncertainties in this way overestimates the total uncertainty. Uncertainty Formula – Example #2. To estimate the uncertainty in CA, we first use Equation \ref{4.1} to determine the uncertainty for the numerator. The concentration of Cu2+ is, \[\frac {0.9775 \text{ g Cu}} {0.5000 \text{ L}} \times \frac {1.000 \text{ mL}} {250.0 \text{ mL}} \times \frac {1000 \text{ mg}} {\text{g}} = 7.820 \text{ mg } \ce{Cu^{2+}} \text{/L} \nonumber\], Having found the concentration of Cu2+, we continue with the propagation of uncertainty. 3.7 Calculate the expanded uncertainty 12 4 Example 1: The determination of creatinine in serum 13 4.1 Background to the measurement procedure 13 4.2 Evaluation of measurement uncertainty 13 5 Example 2: The determination of free catecholamines in urine 19 5.1 Background to the method 19 The concentration and uncertainty for Cu2+ is 7.820 mg/L ± 0.047 mg/L. If the uncertainty in measuring Po and P is 15, what is the uncertainty in the absorbance? For example it may be difficult to judge: whether a thermometer is showing a temperature of 24.0°C, 24.5°C or 25.0°C L= 1.6 ± .05 cm. Other devices. For example, the weight of a particular sample is 0.825 g, but it may actually be 0.828 g or 0.821 g because there is inherent uncertainty involved. We can define the uncertainties for A, B, and C using standard deviations, ranges, or tolerances (or any other measure of uncertainty), as long as we use the same form for all measurements. One reason to complete a propagation of uncertainty is that we can compare our estimate of the uncertainty to that obtained experimentally. It would be a reasonable approximation to ignore to pipette uncertainty when calculating the overall uncertainty in the final value.

Second Baby Early Or Late Statistics,

Teacup Maltese Puppies For Sale,

Appomattox County Jail Inmates,

Tp-link Ue300 Review,

Built In Wall Units,

Manhattan Flight Club,

Question Mark Wiggle,

9003 Led Bulb Same As,

Can I Hyphenate My Last Name Without Legally Changing It,

Argumentative Essay Topics Singapore,

uncertainty chemistry examples 2020