After finishing, she carefully drew lines throughout the rest of the blank sheet so no forgeries could be added, and she signed it ‘I humbly crave but one word of answer from yourself. It was only when she reached adulthood and became queen that its psychological effects were revealed. The Primary Sources section of this site contains an excerpt from Edward VI’s journal in which he records a religious argument with Mary. She soon developed the habit of rising early; when he appeared, her nose was safely in a book. She chafed at her confinement and its boring routine. Elizabeth's parents married after her father broke with Rome and divorced his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Elizabeth herself arrived at the Tower just six weeks later, and her cousin’s fate must have weighed heavily on her mind. But Mary had always been fond of Jane and was close friends with her mother Frances; she allowed her cousin to live very comfortably in the Tower while her fate remained undecided. She kept Mary in confinement for 19 years, but her presence in England proved to be detrimental to the precarious religious balance within the country, as Catholics used her as a rallying point. Their mental powers were considered to be inferior to men. She sent another note to Dudley, telling him she was too ill to travel. After the execution, Elizabeth claimed that the warrant was dispatched against her wishes; whether that was true or not is unknown. The government was able to suppress the rebellion before it spread very far and Wyatt was arrested. He warned Mary that the emperor would not allow Philip to enter England as long as Jane lived. Elizabeth, Mary believed, was never to be trusted. When Jane was invited to a reception for Mary of Guise, the regent of Scotland, Mary Tudor sent her ‘some goodly apparel of tinsel cloth of gold and velvet laid on with parchment lace of gold.’ Jane, a devout Protestant, was offended; such apparel reflected the material trappings of Catholicism. Elizabeth Tudor was 25 years old when she inherited the throne from her Catholic sister, Mary. Elizabeth was now separated from her brother’s household, moving to Katharine Parr’s home in Chelsea. Another portrait of Elizabeth’s half-sister, Queen Mary I. Mary, however, had other matters on her mind. Film: "The Virgin Queen" (1955) Bette Davis reclaims her role as Queen Elizabeth in the 1955 film, … Katharine arranged for 10 year old Elizabeth to have the most distinguished tutors in England, foremost among them Roger Ascham. A major factor in Elizabeth I’s reign becoming known as England’s … This inflamed numerous plots against Elizabeth’s life, a situation exacerbated by Mary, Queen of Scots. This was perhaps the happiest time of her adolescence. Mary had truly believed she was pregnant; her stomach had become swollen and she had felt the child quicken. For example, Edward VI had given Dudley Hatfield House, which was currently Elizabeth’s residence. They did not meet immediately. She was not as bloody, as vile or as hate-filled as monarchs that went before, but her reign was steeped in controversy and she divided pinion. For his part, de Noailles reported that Elizabeth complained her coronet was too heavy and made her head ache. Seymour was not content to be husband of the Dowager Queen of England. Despite this, Elizabeth was educated under some of the most highly regarded educators of the time, including William Grindal and Roger Ascham. On 31 July, Elizabeth rode with her attendant nobles along the Strand and through the City to Colchester, the same path her sister would take. On 30 April a rumor reached London that a male child had been born and celebrations ensued. Elizabeth I (Born Princess Elizabeth; September 7, 1533–March 24, 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 1558 to 1603, the last of the Tudor monarchs. Elizabeth I Quotes. In truth, the roughly 300 people killed (about 60 women) was not considered excessive by Mary’s European contemporaries; and in the government’s mind, Protestantism had become dangerously linked with treason, sedition, and other secular crimes. When her parents insisted she wear it, Jane replied, ‘Nay, that were a shame to follow my Lady Mary against God’s word, and leave my Lady Elizabeth, which followeth God’s word.’. Gardiner wanted her executed; he argued that Protestantism could not be completely eradicated until its great hope, Elizabeth herself, was gone. Her only hope, they counseled, was to marry quickly and lean upon her husband for support. It seems to have first gained traction after Bram Stoker (of all people),… It was only Dudley’s appeal to her religious convictions which convinced her to accept the throne. Elizabeth has been remembered more for her successes than her failures and as a monarch that loved her people and was much loved in return. She was questioned by the unfriendly bishop of Winchester, Stephen Gardiner, but she was not intimidated. For one mother and daughter to be secure, the other pair must necessarily suffer. She was then third in line behind her Roman Catholic half-sister, Princess Mary. But Renard wanted both Jane and her husband executed. Philip, however, was far more sensitive to the political implications of such an act. Philip represented the homeland of her beloved mother, and a chance to bring all the weight of the Holy Roman Empire to bear upon the heretics of England. She left the Seymour home for Hatfield House in May 1548, ostensibly because the queen was ‘undoubtful of health’. She demanded only outward obedience, unwilling to force consciences. Queen Elizabeth I reigned for 44 years and 127 days. The failure of Dudley’s ambitions is discussed at the Lady Jane Grey site. It was rumored that he wished to marry Elizabeth and thus secure the throne of England in case Edward died young. He also passed the patents to her lands, which allowed her more income. When word reached her that Mary was finally queen, she sent a letter of congratulation to her sister and set off for London. She lived a long life and reigned over a powerful country, but How Did Queen Elizabeth the First Die? In the early years of her reign, she often went out to the country on annual visits to aristocratic houses, showing herself to most of the public along the road in the country and townsfolk of southern England. So Elizabeth at first benefited from Dudley’s rise to power. Anne Boleyn was dismissed in polite circles as the king’s ‘concubine’ and their marriage was recognized only by those of the new Protestant faith. Edward Spenser and William Shakespeare were both supported by the queen and likely drew inspiration from their regal leader. The only time in her life when she demonstrated any recklessness had been during the Seymour debacle; she had learned its lesson well. Elizabeth was thirteen years old when her father died. But she was not so serious that she avoided all the material trappings of her position. Her procession into London and coronation were masterpieces of political statement and planning, and her accession was treated warmly by many in England who hoped for greater religious toleration. Mary’s mood was fickle regarding her clever half-sister. Flowers, sweets, cakes and other small gifts were given to her. The English people never accepted ‘Nan Bullen’ as their queen. Elizabeth quickly assembled a Privy Council and promoted a number of key advisors: One, William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), was appointed principal secretary. Elizabeth experienced ever more depression, something she had experienced her entire life. Indeed, she drove Tyrwhit to exasperation; ‘in no way will she confess any practice by Mistress Ashley or the cofferer concerning my lord Admiral; and yet I do see it in her face that she is guilty and do perceive as yet she will abide more storms ere she accuse Mistress Ashley,’ he wrote to Somerset, ‘I do assure your Grace she hath a very good wit and nothing is gotten of her but by great policy.’ Elizabeth refused to scapegoat her loyal servants and defiantly asserted her complete innocence. As for Edward VI, he went along with the plan because of two main reasons: Elizabeth was illegitimate so there might be resistance to her rule and, as a princess, she might be persuaded to marry a foreign prince and England would fall under foreign control. She was also an heir to the English throne, though still officially recognized as a bastard. She did not criticize her sister explicitly, telling him only that the queen must do with her as her conscience dictated. Elizabeth was born to Henry VIII of England and Anne Boleyn. Their partnership would prove to be fruitful and he remained in her service for 40 years. This wasn’t enough for more extreme Protestants, and Elizabeth faced criticism from them. One question that dogged Elizabeth, particularly in the early part of her reign, was the question of succession. Elizabeth again told him she would rather be unjustly imprisoned than gain freedom with lies. Finally, on 20 July, even as Elizabeth mulled over her letter, Philip II of Spain finally landed at Southampton. Her entry into London and the great coronation procession that followed were masterpieces of political courtship. With Bedingfield’s arrival, Elizabeth lost her almost preternatural self-control and she asked her guards ‘whether the Lady Jane’s scaffold was taken away or no?’ When told it was gone, she asked about Bedingfield, and if ‘her murdering were secretly committed to his charge, he would see the execution thereof?’. The letter had taken too long to write; they had missed the tide. Her early life was full of uncertainties, and her chances of succeeding to the throne seemed very slight once her half-brother Edward was born in 1537. He had already bought the wardship of Lady Jane Grey, a Tudor cousin and heir in Henry VIII’s will. The coasts of North and South America were first explored during her reign, with the first colonies being set up in the so-called “New World”. She never married and consciously styled herself as the Virgin Queen, wedded to the nation. Elizabeth refused to allow their examination; she preferred to commit her body to God rather than to the eyes of strangers, she told Bedingfield. The rumors were hardly comforting. Elizabeth responded to this emotional hostility by retreating to Hatfield. It was not as destitute or uncomfortable as she had feared, but it was still the Tower of London and she was a prisoner. She even composed a little. Like her mother, Mary was a devout Catholic; she recognized Elizabeth’s lack of religious zeal. Elizabeth had always been active, both physically and mentally. The main reason is that Dudley was well aware that Elizabeth Tudor would not be his puppet, unlike Jane Grey whom he had married to his son Guildford. She told Gardiner she would rather remain in prison forever than admit to crimes she had never committed. Ascham and her other tutors were famous Cambridge humanists who supported the Protestant cause. Mary rode to East Anglia, the conservative section of England where her support would be strongest. They traveled quite slowly, covering just six miles a day. Elizabeth was lavish in her presentation, part of her brilliantly orchestrated campaign to mold her image and retain power. Unfortunately, Elizabeth soon lost favor with her Catholic sister, likely due to English Protestants seeing her as an alternative to Mary. Mary was the focus of plots to kill Elizabeth during the 1580s. He had spent over a year in a country he disliked, married to a woman he pitied but did not love. When Henry died in 1547, Edward, his only son, succeeded to the throne. Dozens of nurses and midwives crowded into Hampton Court, joined by a throng of noble ladies who would assist in the delivery. Three of the queen’s councilors – Howard, Hastings, and Cornwallis, all of whom were friendly with Elizabeth – escorted her back to London. The journey to Woodstock certainly raised her spirit. This is also called the "Bisley Boy" theory. Her unmarried status often led to comparisons of Elizabeth with the Roman goddess Diana, the Virgin Mary, and even a Vestal Virgin. Elizabeth I is buried in Westminster Abbey. Elizabeth went out of her way to cultivate a wider public. Dudley was enraged by Elizabeth’s refusal but he could do nothing. Finally, on 3 August, the queen’s household departed to Oatlands and the pregnancy was not mentioned again. But she had always suffered from digestive and menstrual troubles. She dazzled even her greatest enemies. She now recognized him for what he was – a conscientious, unimaginative civil servant with a difficult assignment. But while she had the king’s personal favor, Elizabeth’s mother was secure. Philip, always prudent, preferred to know his sister-in-law before making an enemy of her. Toward the end of her reign, England experienced a blossoming literary culture. Gardiner asked. In December, she was moved into her infant half-sister’s household. Their processions met at Wanstead on 2 August. They, too, had lived in the Tower under threat of execution; both had been convicted of treason. Elizabeth refused to send troops, instead sending money to support the Protestants, who overthrew the Queen Regent. The American state of Virginia, which was founded by Sir Walter Raleigh, one of Elizabeth’s favorite courtiers, was in fact named after her, the Virgin Queen. Her reign was marked by immense growth for England, especially in world power and cultural influence. Mary refused; she already blamed Anne Boleyn (and, by extension, Elizabeth) for the sad alteration of her own fortunes. Elizabeth was petulant and took her time with the composition of this most important letter. They had not seen each other for about five years. In that matter, Elizabeth remained distant, preferring to let her siblings argue without her. No councilor wanted the responsibility of keeping her in close confinement at their homes; it was too unpleasant and potentially dangerous. She was understandably frightened and ill; she sent word that she could not travel. The young king lived for a few more weeks though he suffered terribly. He was willing to move England slowly back into the Catholic fold; faced with Mary’s impatience, it was Philip who advised moderation. Mary had long blamed Anne for her own mother’s tragic end as well as the alienation of her father’s affections. The queen’s bedroom was lit with flickering candlelight; the queen herself was half-hidden in shadow. The king enjoyed a brief few months of happiness with his fifth wife. Elizabeth was nineteen years old, taller than her sister and slender. Elizabeth Tudor was born on 7 September 1533 in Greenwich Palace. It was a stalemate. For Mary, who was perhaps the most personally kind and gentle of the Tudor rulers, the killings were necessary to save the heretics’ souls as well. Link will appear as Hanson, Marilee. Mary’s council could find no real proof that de Noailles’s suppositions were true but they decided to summon Elizabeth back to London for questioning. Elizabeth refused, remarking, ‘You must first make this agreement with my elder sister, during whose lifetime I have no claim or title to resign.’ So she remained at her beloved Hatfield, deliberately avoiding a commitment one way or another. He lacked charisma and confidence; he preferred to bully and bluster his way through council meetings. Their two parties entered London together, the sisters riding side by side. Elizabeth went to live with Henry’s widow, Catherine Parr. Edward VI’s council had left the economy in shambles; currency was debased and near worthless. For Elizabeth, these events were merely background noise at first. Mary did not read the letters and angrily order Bedingfield to stop sending them along. Elizabeth liked to give nicknames to her courtiers. ….Let conscience move your Highness to take some better way with me than to make me be condemned in all men’s sight afore my desert know. It was abundantly clear to Elizabeth that her position was precarious and dangerous. But the love of the people was small comfort when faced with the dilapidation of Woodstock. She truly believed some harm would come to her and she dwelt most upon the possibility of poison. Most infamously, a former favorite, the Earl of Essex, led a poorly-plotted rebellion against the queen in 1601. He recommended the services of Drs Barnes and Walbeck. Originally, this dislike was because of Elizabeth’s mother, Anne Boleyn. Meanwhile, Jane’s cousin, Mary Tudor, was still on her way to Greenwich to see her brother, until a sympathizer (sent by Nicholas Throckmorton or William Cecil) rode out to meet her; the summons was a trap, he told her, and Dudley intended to imprison her. After the warder’s declaration, she sat upon a stone and would not move. She knew how to use courtship as a useful political tool, and she wielded it masterfully. There, Elizabeth dismounted and knelt in the road before her sister. These were intercepted as well. Edward VI attempted to disinherit both his sisters, favoring his cousin Lady Jane Grey for the throne. But at her accession, the moment of her great triumph, she was prepared to be conciliatory. It was the end of over a year of tiresome captivity and she was delighted. He believed this was necessary for his personal and political salvation. Elizabeth had begged for an interview for more than a year but now that the moment had at last arrived, she was understandably nervous. The execution of Mary Stuart convinced Philip in Spain that it was time to conquer England and restore Catholicism within the country. The earl of Sussex and the marquess of Winchester were sent to escort her from Whitehall. Most people viewed the adolescent Elizabeth as a serious young woman who always carried a book with her, preternaturally composed. As a teenaged girl with little experience of men, she was flattered by his attention and also a bit frightened. The sight terrified her and she begged to be allowed entry by any other gate. The main house was in such disrepair that Elizabeth was lodged in the gatehouse. The last 15 years of her reign were the hardest on Elizabeth, as her most trusted advisers died and younger courtiers struggled for power. But she was shown every respect, and a degree of affection from Edward VI completely lacking in his relations with their sister Mary. Elizabeth I, bynames the Virgin Queen and Good Queen Bess, (born September 7, 1533, Greenwich, near London, England—died March 24, 1603, Richmond, Surrey), queen of England (1558–1603) during a period, often called the Elizabethan Age, when England asserted itself vigorously as a major European power in politics, commerce, and the arts. As a result, Elizabeth was educated as well as any legitimate prince, and she displayed a genuine love and aptitude for her studies. She had faced such interrogations during Thomas Seymour’s fall from grace, and could not be easily intimidated. And so Gardiner and Renard had their way and she went to the Tower of London. There she awaited Mary’s official arrival into the city. If she made an unpopular decision, it would be blamed upon his influence. Elizabeth went to Tilbury Camp to encourage her troops, declaring: In the end, England defeated the Armada and Elizabeth was victorious. Elizabeth’s reign marked a change from Mary’s Catholicism and a return to the policies of Henry VIII, whereby the English monarch was head of an English church. This would prove to be the climax of her reign: Only a year later, the same Armada all but destroyed the English Navy. She studied theology and supported the Protestant cause; she had been raised to do so and knew only Protestants recognized her parents’ marriage. ‘Her mind has no womanly weakness,’ Ascham would write approvingly, ‘her perseverance is equal to that of a man.’ And later, ‘She readeth more Greek every day, than some Prebendaries of this Church do in a whole week.’ And so she did; Elizabeth’s love of scholarship never faltered and, in an age when women were considered inferior to men, she was a glorious exception. Elizabeth kept the curtains of the litter pulled back as she entered the city, and the citizens were able to see her pale, frightened face. In her greatest speech to Parliament, she told them, ‘I count the glory of my crown that I have reigned with your love.’ And five centuries later, the worldwide love affair with Elizabeth Tudor continues. However, by the time Elizabeth gave her first speech to Parliament in early 1559 she declared that it would be ‘sufficient’ for her to ‘live and die a virgin.’ On 24th March 1603, Elizabeth did in fact die in this precise manner at the age of 69. Did Elizabeth really believe she was wrongfully imprisoned? Much of Elizabeth’s reign was a careful balancing act between both factions of her own court as well as with other nations. She was arrested, charged with a variety of crimes which even her enemies discounted, and executed on 19 May 1536. Mary was the happiest she had been since childhood, but the problem of Elizabeth remained. In her reign she faced three main wars. Elizabeth participated in the christening, carried by Thomas Seymour, the handsome young brother of the queen. Elizabeth I. Finally, on 7 July, Mary finally sent permission to Woodstock for Elizabeth to write to her and the Council about her various concerns. The details were undoubtedly embarrassing but she recognized their harmlessness. She fashioned herself and her kingdom into a major world power by believing in the qualities of the men who surrounded her, exploiting their weaknesses and admiring their strengths. They decided to wait until the next morning, Palm Sunday, when the streets would be nearly deserted since everyone would be in church. When it was finally sent, written in Bedingfield’s hand from her dictation, it was a typically shrewd and pointed document. Elizabeth had a dim view of romantic love and, given her father’s example, who can blame her? Upon Somerset’s execution, Dudley became Lord Protector; he was also titled duke of Northumberland. The mere mention of the Tower was enough to shatter her already fragile nerves. As such, she was cheered as much as the new queen. 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