E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org. We also examined whether the behavioral changes of the non‐burrowing, fossorial P. cinereus differed across age classes. In some areas with good habitat, these salamanders are so numerous, their population densities may surpass 1,000 individuals per acre (2,471 individuals per hectare). Kin recognition is suspected (Forester and Anders, 2000), and Gillette et al. Females deposit eggs in moist natural cavities within leaf litter, soil burrows, or rotting logs (Test and Heatwole, 1962). A. The occurrence of eastern red-backed salamanders is also positively associated with forest patch area, suggesting that forest fragmentation may result in declines (Kolozsvary and Swihart, 1999). habitat P. cinereus eggs found in clutches of 4 to 9 eggs either underneath or in cavities within decomposing logs. ], copperheads [Agkistrodon contortix], and ring-necked snakes; Cockran, 1911; Uhler et al., 1939; Arnold, 1982; Mitchell, 1994a; Lancaster and Wise, 1996), spiders (Lotter, 1978), rove beetles (Platydracus viduatus [Staphylinidae]; Jung et al., 2000), spotted salamanders (Ducey et al., 1994), praying mantis (Mantis religiosa: Stein, 1989), mammals (shrews [Insectivora], voles and chipmunks [Rodentia], raccoons and foxes [Carnivora]; Brodie et al., 1979; Wyman, 1988b), and birds that forage in the leaf litter (Coker, 1931; Bent, 1949; Lotter and Scott, 1977; Brodie et al., 1979; Jaeger, 1981a; Fenster and Fenster, 1996). A Plethodon cinereus group has been recognized by Grobman (1944) and Highton and Larson (1979). (1993) hypothesized that homing was accomplished by forming a cognitive map of the surrounding pheromone-marked territories of other salamanders in the home area of the forest. With the advent of freezing weather, individuals move into underground retreats, beneath stones, into ant mounds, or under and within rotting logs and stumps, where they usually remain until snowmelt (Cockran, 1911; Grizzell, 1949; Vernberg, 1953; Cooper, 1956; Sayler, 1966; Highton, 1972; Caldwell and Jones, 1973; Hoff, 1977; Lotter, 1978; Buhlmann et al., 1988). Class: Amphibia.  The red-backed salamander exhibits color polymorphism and two color variations are common: the "red-backed" or "red-stripe" variety has a red dorsal stripe that tapers towards the tail, and the darker variety, known as the "lead-backed" (or simply "lead") phase, lacks most or all of the red pigmentation. Waldick (1997) presents evidence of mass emigration away from a clearcut in New Brunswick. They are constrained by their physiology to certain abiotic factors within their habitat, including soil moisture, temperature, leaf litter type, and cover objects. This phenomenon may have implications for eastern red-backed salamander distribution as global warming progresses, because increased physiological stress is likely in warm summer periods (Ovaska, 1997). J. Torpor (Hibernation). All three are slender and delicate salamanders about 4 inches long. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] IUCN kategoriserar arten globalt som livskraftig . Maerz and Karuzas (2003) report an instance of an adult cannibalizing a juvenile. When encountering shrews, eastern red-backed salamanders orient their tail toward the predator and arch and undulate this appendage, which contains glands thought to be distasteful to predators (Brodie et al., 1979). Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Studies, University of Puerto Rico, , 00936‐8377 San Juan, PR, USA. Embryonic gills are lost just before or shortly after hatching. Small invertebrates are the staple of the diet. C. Direct Development. In Maryland, Cooper (1956) reported aquatic hibernation in 7.5–25 cm (3–10 in) of water. (1993) estimates that 14 million salamanders are lost annually in western North Carolina as a direct result of forestry practices (but see Ash, 1988, 1997; Ash and Bruce, 1994). Their highest abundance occurs in mature hardwood forests, with deep soils and abundant downed woody debris in various stages of decomposition (Grover, 1998). Proportions of red-backed and lead-backed morphs vary predicably in many areas of the United States, but this variation is not correlated with any obvious environmental factor (Petranka, 1998). Territories appear to function primarily as feeding areas, but may also play a role in mating success (Jaeger et al., 1982; Mathis, 1991). They may also forage in bogs (Hughes et al., 1999). Biological series ; no.  It is one of the most numerous salamanders throughout its range. Positive correlations have been made between forest age, the quantity and quality of downed woody debris, and salamander abundance (Herbeck and Larsen, 1999), and it is widely believed that abundance declined following European settlement. In Virginia, 95% of nests were attended by brooding females (Highton and Savage, 1961). Vernberg (1955) reported soil pH preferences of 6.0–6.8. Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818) Eastern Red-Backed Salamander. Habitat: Moist forests, especially forested, rocky hillsides. The other two similarly-shaped salamanders in Vermont are the Four-toed and the Northern Two-lined Salamanders. Phylum: Chordata. Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander) Movement. Jaeger et al. Soils with an interstitial relative humidity < 85% are probably unsuitable for this species (Heatwole and Lim, 1961; Heatwole, 1962). Conifer plantations are especially harmful; their drying, acidifying, and warming effects can permanently degrade salamander habitat (Waldick, 1997). Family: Plethodonidae. We also examined whether the behavioral changes of the non-burrowing, fossorial P. cinereus differed across age classes. A Plethodon cinereus group has been recognized by Grobman (1944) and Highton and Larson (1979). Eastern red-backed salamanders are replaced by the more drought resistant southern ravine salamanders (P. richmondi) on steep slopes in Ohio (Pfingsten, 1989b). Order: Caudata. Eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) have undergone extensive taxonomic revision. Author links open overlay panel Breanna L. Riedel a Kevin R. Russell a W. Mark Ford b Katherine P. O’Neill c Harry W. Godwin c. Show more. Most brooding female eastern red-backed salamanders will desert nests and flee when approached by ring-necked snakes (Petranka, 1998). Empirical evaluation of the hypothesis of food competition in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. m. Given its numbers and sensitivity to habitat conditions, it may be useful as a bioindicator of environmental degradation. University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Fraser, Douglas F. 1976. However, in Virginia, Grover (2000) showed that eastern red-backed salamanders were displaced from moist habitats near streams and seeps by northern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) and seal salamanders (Desmognathus monticola). We used two field experiments to examine the nature and effects of size-dependent interactions between two terrestrial salamanders, Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon glutinosus. Homing behavior has also been demonstrated in Michigan, where displaced salamanders returned to their territories after displacements of 30 m (90% return) and 90 m (25% return; Kleeberger and Werner, 1982). I. No information is available, but eggs are susceptible to fungal infections (Pfingsten, 1989b). Terrestrial . Related Titles. The egg-laying habits of Plethodon cinereus . Plethodon = fullness (may refer to yolk filled eggs) cinereus = ash colored. F. Home Range Size. Seasonal Migrations. A large percentage of the total population resides below the soil surface and is typically under-sampled in surface counts and mark-recapture methods (Test and Bingham, 1948; Taub, 1961). Watermolen (1996) observed a female pick up an egg mass in her mouth, breaking it free from the pedicel, and carry it deeper into a log crevice when disturbed. The number of mature ova has been positively correlated with female length (Nagel, 1977; Lotter, 1978), as well as with female mass but not length (Fraser, 1980), suggesting that low food levels or quality may reduce clutch size. Housing. Salamanders will climb on vegetation to forage at night (Cockran, 1911; Burton and Likens, 1975a; Jaeger, 1978). Females usually remain coiled with the eggs for about 60 d until hatching, and this behavior is thought to provide some protection for the eggs from predators and dehydration (Petranka, 1998), as well as accrue energetic and growth costs to the brooding female (Ng and Wilbur, 1995). Males breed annually throughout the range and are sexually mature upon reaching 32–37 mm SVL (Blanchard, 1928a; Sayler, 1966; Werner, 1971; Nagel, 1977; Lotter, 1978; Petranka, 1998). Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus: Crother, Boundy Females produce from four to 17 eggs in a year. Females produce from four to 17 eggs in a year. An Plethodon cinereus in nahilalakip ha genus nga Plethodon, ngan familia nga Plethodontidae. Other reported predators include woodland snakes (i.e., garter snakes [Thamnophis sp. Empirical evaluation of the hypothesis of food competition in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. 2006, Adams et al. [ 1 ] Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of Life . Mid summer movements occur in response to rising temperature and falling humidity, resulting in salamanders moving to cooler, moister environments (i.e., deeper into soils and from hilltops to depressions in the forest floor; Heatwole, 1962). (2000) reported a probable breeding aggregation of five individuals in Michigan. Eastern red-backed salamanders are largely nocturnal (Piersol, 1910; Cockran, 1911; Park et al., 1931; Heatwole, 1962). Where logging activities have reduced the number of natural cavities available in downed woody debris, females may instead utilize cavities within matted leaf litter (Petranka, 1998). None reported. Regular surface activity during prolonged warm spells in winter has been observed (Highton, 1972), and based on full stomachs in January in Indiana, there is some evidence that feeding continues through the winter (Caldwell, 1975), but declines from December–February (Petranka, 1998). Highton (2003) documents recent widespread declines in most species of this complex. Possible competitive interactions between eastern red-backed salamanders and valley and ridge salamanders (P. hoffmani; Fraser, 1976b), and between eastern red-backed salamanders and Wehrle's salamanders (P. wehrlei; Pauley, 1978a,b,c), have been suggested but not conclusively demonstrated.  This may be a consequence of a higher predation risk experienced in the wild by the lead-backed phase, and may also mean lead-phase salamanders could be more vulnerable in captivity settings. The effects of soil pH on sodium balance in the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, and three other terrestrial salamanders. Ants, termites, beetles, flies, earthworms, spiders, snails, slugs, mites, centipedes, millipedes, springtails, midges, pseudoscorpions, and other lepidopterans, thysanopterans, and hymenopterans are all reported as prey (Cockran, 1911; Murphy, 1918; Blanchard, 1928a; Hamilton, 1932; Jameson, 1944; Jaeger, 1972; Caldwell and Jones, 1973; Caldwell, 1975; Burton, 1976; Hoff, 1977; Pauley, 1978b; Mitchell and Woolcott, 1985; Bausmann and Whitaker, 1987; Maglia, 1996; Hughes et al., 1999). (1999). K. Interspecific Associations/Exclusions. Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems. There has been no evidence of declines in Canada (Weller and Green, 1997). (2000) provide evidence through behavioral experiments for social monogamy. In some species, such as Plethodon cinereus, the red-backed salamander, eggs are laid underneath a stone or log. Frisbie, Malcolm Pratt, and Richard L. Wyman.  These color morphs are rarer than the red-backed, lead-backed, and erythristic morphs, but still have been reported with consistency among varying populations of this species. notes This egg clutch was found within a decomposing log with an attending female. "A review of colour phenotypes of the Eastern Red-backed Salamander, 10.1655/0018-0831(2007)63[450:AAAPAB]2.0.CO;2, "Lead-phase and red-stripe color morphs of red-backed salamanders, APPALACHIAN NATURE: An Entrée of Salamanders, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Red-backed_salamander&oldid=988186370, Fauna of the Great Lakes region (North America), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 17:04. Spermatogenesis occurs from October–December in New York (Hood, 1934; Bishop, 1941b; Feder and Pough, 1975) and in late March in Michigan (Werner, 1969). Other likely predators include woodland mice (Cricetidae, Zapodidae), centipedes (Chilopoda), and ground beetles (Carabidae). We reared juveniles of P. cinereus in an enclosure alone, with a similarly-sized conspecific, with a similarly-sized P. glutinosus, and with a larger P. glutinosus. Eastern red-backed salamanders have also been found dead within the insectivorous leaves of the bog-dwelling purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea; Hughes et al., 1999). 1A). Note that in the embryo in the top right egg, the tail is visible against the background of … P. Anti-Predator Mechanisms. Preferred temperatures are higher in late summer and fall (maximum August mean selected temperature 21.0 ˚C) than in early summer (mean selected temperature 16.2 ˚C in early June), possibly facilitating surface activity in the summer, spermatogenesis during the fall mating season, and the selection of well-protected hibernation sites (Feder and Pough, 1975). Breeding. Surface activity is reduced in mid summer (late June to August; Blanchard, 1928a; Test, 1955; Taub, 1961; Highton, 1972; Nagel, 1977; Maglia, 1996). ii. Breeding occurs in June and July. 2007). No range retractions of eastern red-backed salamanders have been reported, but local extirpations have been due to habitat changes, chiefly deforestation, and other, unknown causes (see Highton, 2003). , Antipredator behavior of P. cinereus was found to differ between the two color phases; the lead-backed phase has a tendency to run away from predators, whereas the red-backed phase often stays immobile and possibly exhibits aposematic coloration. Eastern red-backed salamanders can recognize individual neighbors by odors (McGavin, 1978), and exhibit considerable site tenacity, with 91% of recaptured, displaced individuals returning to within 1 m of their capture sites in Virginia (Gergits and Jaeger, 1990). (2000) emphasize that males and females can cohabit territories as pairs and allow juveniles to forage within their territories. Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus cinereus [now coextensive with Plethodon cinereus]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. A Plethodon cinereus group has been recognized by Grobman (1944) and Highton and Larson (1979). Kin discrimination between mother and offspring may be context dependent (Gibbons et al., 2003). When exposed, individuals may remain motionless to avoid detection, flee for protective cover, or assume a coiled position with the tail on top, presenting a dispensable body part to the predator (see below). Females often exhibit biennial breeding cycles in the North and annual cycles in the South (Sayler, 1966; Petranka, 1998). The red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) is a species of small, hardy woodland salamander in the family Plethodontidae. Both species have been documented to be highly territorial both in the wild and in captivity. Jaeger's (1980a) data actually support Highton (2003) in suggesting stable populations over a 14-yr period prior to 1980. However, both biennial (Vogt, 1981) and annual (M. Bergeson, personal communication) breeding has been reported from Wisconsin. ii. Ovipositing typically occurs in late spring and early summer. ... have been es- timated to be 24.34 m2 (Kleeberger and Werner 1982, op. Eggs are susceptible to dehydration, and the rehydration rate is slower than the rate of dehydration (Heatwole, 1961b). Description: 1 leaf, pages 469-493. plates. Frisbie, Malcolm Pratt, and Richard L. Wyman. McAlpine (1997a) found no evidence of decline in New Brunswick, but suggests that clearcutting, conversions to conifer plantations, and shorter cutting cycles may have depleted populations. It is one of 56 species in the genus Plethodon. Series: CIHM/ICMH microfiche series ; no. The incubation period is about 6–8 wk (Burger, 1935; Davidson and Heatwole, 1960; Pfingsten, 1989b), with hatching usually taking place in August–September. Range/Habitat. The earliest I have observed eggs is 28 April on Stockton Island in western Lake Superior (in an atypically early and warm spring). i. 2. Placyk et al. The eggs hatch in 6 to 8 weeks. Much of its life is spent underground. Check Google Images for Plethodon cinereus: The photographer's identification Plethodon cinereus has not been reviewed. No range retractions have been reported, but local extirpations have been due to habitat changes (chiefly deforestation) and other, unknown causes (see Highton, 2003). Eastern red-backed salamanders are a top predator of the detritus food chain, feeding on any prey they can capture. Eastern red-backed salamanders prefer cool, moist microhabitats and avoid temperature extremes and desiccating environments (Heatwole, 1960). The species inhabits wooded slopes in eastern North America, west to Missouri, south to North Carolina, and north from southern Quebec and the Maritime provinces in Canada to Minnesota. In a New Hampshire study, the biomass of six species of salamanders (of which eastern red-backed salamanders comprised 93.5%) exceeded that for all birds during the nesting season and was similar to the biomass estimate for all small mammals (Burton and Likens, 1975a). i. Pokagon State Park in Indiana is one such place. O. , As in many Plethodon species, female red-backed salamanders have the ability to store sperm as spermatophore, and have been evidenced in doing so up to eight months prior to the oviposition period in June and July. Spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) preyed upon eastern red-backed salamanders in 9% of lab trials (Ducey et al., 1994), which might best be interpreted as interspecific interference. Selective logging appears to have less impact on this species than does clearcutting, with little difference in salamander densities detected between closed-canopy plots and 1-yr-old canopy gap plots (Messere and Ducey, 1998). Egg-laying behavior is described by Madison et al. Click here to review or comment on the identification. Q. Conservation. Mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus) behave aggressively towards eastern red-backed salamanders and can drive them from occupied sites (Smith and Pough, 1994). Sexual maturity is reached about 2 yr after hatching (Bausmann and Whitaker, 1987). , Plethodon cinereus, like many plethodon species, exhibit homing behavior, with homing of females to their nests, as well as non-attending females and males to a home range. 16. Moisture requirements also influence microhabitat choice. Competition between eastern red-backed salamanders and other plethodontids is recognized (e.g., Adams, 2000). 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