1 Radioactivity Emission of high energy photons and particles Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays Elements heavier than lead (Z=82), are radioactive Radioactive materials emit: –alpha particles (helium nucleus) –beta particles (electrons) –gamma rays (electromagnetic radiation) How can we tell the difference between these? Many nuclei are radioactive. Gamma rays, which could penetrate several centimeters of lead We now know that alpha rays are helium nuclei, beta rays are electrons, and gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation. Alpha rays, which could barely penetrate a piece of paper 2. Discovery of Radioactivity• Henri Bequerel (1852-1908)• During his studies of phosphorescence (1896), found a mineral (uranium) would darken a photographic plate even if the plate was wrapped.• Found that this mineral emitted a new kind of radiation (X-rays … Nuclear radiation - the particles and energy that are released from the nucleus during radioactive decay. PSC 2010 BPS - Lecture Notes Introduction to Radioactivity See the “ Nuclear Chemistry ” Module at Visionlearning.com for more information. An alpha particle (α) is a nucleus with 2 protons and 2 neutrons. … This process releases light, in proportion to the original radiation dose. During radioactive decay, principles of conservation apply. There are 4 types of nuclear radiation… 12-1: Electromagnetic spectrum. Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation, which usually results in the change of an is the spontaneous emission of radiation, which usually results in the change of an This nuclear notation uses a subscript to the lower left to record the number of protons, whereas the superscript to the upper left is the mass number, the total number of … In addition, the Nuclear Energy also has … No notes for slide. Systems, and lecture notes by Prince. • Its traverse (10-100cm) in air, and (1-3 cm) in soft ti ssues. Radioactive rays were observed to be of three types: 1. Electromagnetic radiation covers a wide range of wavelength, from 10-10 µm for cosmic rays to 1010 µm for electrical power waves. In this note you can find various information about Types of Radioactive Decay, Positron Particle, Decay Series, Nuclear Transformation, Transuranium Elements, Half-Life as well as Radiocarbon Dating. Later, the crystal is exposed to a burst of laser light, which liberates the “trapped” electrons. Radiation produces free electrons in the crystal, which fall into “traps” at the sites of lattice imperfections. This nuclear process is called nuclear decay. Chapter 12, E&CE 309, Spring 2005. 12-1, thermal radiation wave is a narrow band on the Beta rays, which could penetrate 3 mm of aluminum 3. Radioactive decay. As shown in Fig. 2 Majid Bahrami Fig. A chain of decays takes place until a stable nucleus is reached. This means they are unstable, and will eventually decay by emitting a particle, transforming the nucleus into another nucleus, or into a lower energy state. Changing Z to N or N to Z Adding a proton (electron) ... Bq notes a single decay event Example: the human body is radioactive with an activity of: 2.2⋅10-7 Ci = 0.22µCi ⇒ 8000 Bq = 8 kBq . Nuclear Changes Radioactivity - the process by which an unstable nucleus emits one or more particles or energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Radioactivity 2. Figures are from the textbook. For chemical purposes, the most important types of radiation are alpha and beta particles. Radioactivity Lecture 5 The Nature and Laws of Radioactivity . • It's less ionizing than alpha radiation, but more than gam ma. 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